DEIVATHIN KURAL # 50 (Vol # 6) Dated 06 Sept 2012
DEIVATHIN KURAL # 50 (Vol # 6) Dated 06 Sept 2012
(These e-mails are translations of talks given by PeriyavaaL of Kanchi Kaamakoti Peetam, over a period of some 60 years while he was the pontiff in the earlier part of the last century. These have been published by Vanadi Padippagam, Chennai, in seven volumes of a thousand pages each as Deivathin Kural. Today we are going ahead from the middle of page No 342 of Volume 6 of the Tamil original. The readers may note that herein ‘man/he’ includes ‘woman/she’ too mostly. These e-mails are all available at http://Advaitham.blogspot.com updated constantly)
174. In Bruhad AaraNyaka Upanishad, the whole of Devas have been advised to observe, exercise and maintain the quality of ‘dama’ only. The word is, ‘धाम्यत’ – to mean, ‘keep your senses and pride under absolute control!’ The story goes like this. Devas, Asuras and Human beings went to their creator Prajapathi. He gave them a one letter advice of ‘Dha’ and asked them as to whether they have understood his advice or not? All people in the world are aware of their own faults. So, when someone tells them indirectly they will know as to what is meant. Actually such indirect deduction will be more valuable and make a deeper impression on the mind. Instead of feeling bad about being criticised, a certain peculiar sense of curiosity and puzzlement will wash away the insult if any!
175. Thus when Prajapathy uttered just a letter ‘Dha’ in reply, the Devas, Asuras and Human beings took it to mean different things. So Devas thought of it as an abbreviation of ‘dama’, the need for self-control. They said, “OK Sir, thank you. We understand that you want us to be exercising greater self-control in all our dealings with others, isn’t it?” Prajapathi confirmed their understanding. Human beings understood the letter ‘Dha’ to be indicative of “datta” to mean, urging them to be more liberal in giving and sacrificing for others. Prajapathi said that they were correct. Asuras, who are normally very cruel, took the letter ‘Dha’ to mean ‘Dayatvam’, that is being compassionate and kind.
176. Here in his Bhashyam, our AachaaryaaL says that there are human beings who have the qualities of all the three as Devas with too much pride; as human beings with too much greed and as Asuras being too cruel! Though they do have other good qualities; the humans lacking in control of the sensual tendencies are similar to the Devas; being too greedy human beings are typically noted for lack of liberality contrary to humaneness being too selfish! Then those human beings, who lack kindness and are too cruel, are like Asuras and Ogres! Thus our AachaaryaaL says that all the advices are meant for the human beings only!
177. From this we can glean that even when a person is known to be very well behaved at times he ends up going astray. If you are lacking in sensual self-discipline, the fall from grace can be total! The desires of the senses are thus very powerful in pulling the Jivan into deep delusions that can prove to be deeper than the gorges of Colorado River! Hence the need for practicing control of the senses and the mind that is, புலன் அடக்கம் as well as மனவடக்கம். That is, applying both ‘sama’ and ‘dama’ simultaneously. This அடக்கம் can be achieved only after rigorous efforts. As the pull of the sensual attractions are very strong, going astray can happen easily and coming back to the right path is extremely difficult. We should guard against losing heart. With utter faith in God, the practice has to be regular, vigorous and rigorous. Even when there are no distractions in the immediate environment, this mind is capable of imagination and will be constantly hovering around the foundation of past experiences. This மனவடக்கம் is nothing but thought control, which is not easily achieved. So, initially what can be achieved is to exercise absolute physical control, even if we were to permit certain amount of temptations to reach the core of your heart! “Just don’t do it”, is the counter propaganda! That is pure and simple ‘dama’! To do fasting, refusing to read porn, to avoid sexual escapades maintaining strict celibacy, is all part of ‘dama’. Slowly as you refrain from such activities, one will be surprised at the enormous amount of freedom and relief from pulls and pressures of life!
178. Thus when you forcibly practice control of the mind, then it becomes more matured for ‘sama’ practices. You will be able to check the flow of the mind towards sexual and other sensual gratifications. But when we leave the aloneness and get back to the business / material world, immediately the senses will be clamouring for all sorts of satisfaction, such as the ear for pop/cine music; the tongue for coffee or tea; without any prompting from the mind. Then again the ‘dama’ has to be used. Once trained, the horses will, run on their own without any need for the application of reining force. Thus the need for application of ‘sama’ and ‘dama’ will alternate repeatedly till you get the feeling that you have done it and that there is nothing more to be achieved. That end condition will be the same as ‘sama’ of the mind’s quiescence.
179. What is possible to some extent in the initial stages is the calmness and repose of the outer புலன் அடக்கம் aka ‘dama’. Taitreeya Upanishad’s fourth part known as ‘Maha Naarayana Upanishad’ (Mantras 78 – 3 and 4) with great condescension and sympathy has advised the practicing of ‘dama’ for the Brhmachari student of the Vedas and practicing of the ‘sama’ for the one who is becoming a Sanyaasi. Dama itself is Param feel the Brhmachari-s happily and the forest dwelling Munis and Rishis feel that Sama itself is Param! Both ‘sama and dama’ have to start from early student days, if one is to achieve complete mind control finally in old days. Where the subdued mind comes to a standstill, there is the Aatman. When the mind stops Aatman will shine. Before this, the senses will cease to run away in a tearing hurry at the drop of a hat! The mind would have voluntarily brought all the senses under its control. After that some trace smells lingering in the mind will have to be interred. That much work only will be pending.
180. So, ‘Sama’ is the final action of ‘adakkam’. When the mind is completely under control, ‘Aatma Prabodam’ happens, the awakening takes place. That is what is referred to as ‘ॐ शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः’ and ‘आत्म शान्तिः’. That is why the word ’daanti’ is not so much in usage! Instead of emphasising the action of domination and control, the end state of peacefulness is what is given more importance. All great men have prayed for the abidance of the mind mainly. Sri Krishna Paramaatma too, has advised us accordingly in Gita Chapter VI, Sloka 26: –
यतो यतो निश्चरति मनस्चन्चलं अस्तिरं |
ततस्ततो नियम्यैतदात्मन्येव वशं नयेत ||
That means, “Whatever causes the restlessness and unsteadiness in the mind – he has used two words चञ्चलं and अस्तिरं – having wrenched the mind from those things that causes this चञ्चलं and अस्तिरं and hand it over to the Aatman is what we have to do!
181. The next step in the process of ‘Saadhana Shatka Sampathi’ is for the mind to come and stop at Aatman. ‘Uparati’ means stop or death. Taayum Aanavar in Parapara KaNNi, 169, says, “மனம் இறக்க கல்லார்க்கு வாயேன் பராபரமே?” That sort of stage of inaction of the mind, by the practices of ‘sama’ and ‘dama’, losing all its attractions and attachments, free of all its compulsions is what is ‘Uparati’. This word is defined by Viveka ChudamaNi (Sloka 24) as, “बाह्यावलंबनं वृत्तेः एषोपरतिरुत्तमाः” This high state of Uparati, he calls ‘उपरतिरुत्तमाः’. Outer compulsions are ‘baahya avalambanam’. Not only movement of the limbs and enjoyments and gratifications by the senses; anything and everything other than the inner self are outside things only, including the thoughts raised by the mind. Thus to be released from all dependencies, virtually meaning the death of mind is Uparati. Still, it is not yet ‘Aatma Prabodham’. Once that happens, it is the exact opposite of death – immortality. Short of it, the mind is as though dead.
182. Upanishads contain arguments and counter arguments. When one side gives answers to all the questions raised, perfectly to the point and the side which raised the questions, becomes speechless, it is said to be, ‘upara raama’, that is reached the stage of having no arguments to put up! Uparamam and Uparati are both the same, like Yama and Yati. The one who has reached the stage of Uparati is Uparatan. Our AachaaryaaL in his Bhashyam for Bruhad AarNyaka Upanishad (IV.4.23.) has described this Uparatan as, “सर्वैषणा विनिर्मुक्तः सन्यासि”. EshaNa is desire. Desire for a wife, off-spring, money, position and or power is all EshaNa. Elsewhere in the same Upanishad (III.5.1), it is said that the Gnaani having left all his aspirations behind, roams about as a beggar! Generally the desire for wife, son and money are together known as ‘EshaNa Thraya’. In Lalitha Thrisati there is one mantra for AmbaaL as “एषणा रहितादृता”, meaning thereby that She is worshipped by those who have got over all their EshaNa.
183. Vairaagyam is also a similar condition only. But, in Vairaagyam the disgust is more predominant. In Uparati there is neither disgust nor desire. In Vairaagyam, in the feeling of disgust towards all desires, the main endeavour is to get rid of all desires by controlling the mind and Indriyas, by using ‘sama’ and ‘dama’. Now there is no more work, no more endeavour. By Vairaagyam, Sama and Dama; the mind is at a stand-still. Not yet ‘मनोनिग्रहः’, this stage is more like ‘retired’. Aatma Anubhava and its state of blissfulness is not yet there. This is more like the state of ‘Soonyata’ or ‘Zeroness’ that Buddhism talks about, in which at least the constant pulls and pressures of life is not there!
(To be continued.)
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