DEIVATHIN KURAL # 45 (Vol # 6) Dated 27 Aug 2012
DEIVATHIN KURAL # 45 (Vol # 6) Dated 27 Aug 2012
(These e-mails are translations of talks given by PeriyavaaL of Kanchi Kaamakoti Peetam, over a period of some 60 years while he was the pontiff in the earlier part of the last century. These have been published by Vanadi Padippagam, Chennai, in seven volumes of a thousand pages each as Deivathin Kural. Today we are going ahead of page No 307 of Volume 6 of the Tamil original. The readers may note that herein ‘man/he’ includes ‘woman/she’ too mostly. These e-mails are all available at http://Advaitham.blogspot.com updated constantly)
124. I hope you noted the point I made in the last paragraph about what our AachaaryaaL said. When the Vairaagyam is intense enough, even the feast of Vana Bhojanam or whatever, will itself be detested like the crow’s excreta only! The bodily hunger is like being afflicted by a disease. So the food should be taken as we would take medicine for a disease, to appease the hunger and not for indulging. So, why bother about such elaborate preparations, just to satisfy the hunger you will feel. Such a ‘jugupsa’ should become our attitude, not only towards the pleasures of this world, but also towards what one may be due in any type of heaven – ‘देहादि ब्रह्म पर्यन्ते’. The only thing required is understanding, comprehending and absorption of the truest principle of Brhma – ‘ब्रह्म तत्वं’ sans qualities, forms and attributes. The God in the form of Brhma in Brhma Loka and whatever pleasures that may be available for our experience there; will all have to be forsaken altogether!
125. While talking about ‘Vairaagyam’ as part of ‘साधना चतुष्टयं’ (in the भाष्यं for ब्रह्म सूत्रं I. 1-1.) and in विवेक चूडामणि, Sloka 19, our AachaaryaaL, to make the point crystal clear gives it a longish qualifying adjective by saying, ‘इहामुत्रफलभोग विराग’. Iham + amutra = Ihamutra. Iham is this world where we live. The word ‘amutra’ means the other worlds of, may be Pithru / Indra / Brhma Loka or Kailasam / Vaikundam – inclusive of all of them is Param! All the possible pleasures ‘from here to eternity’ are to be abjured! As long as your aim is to enjoy the pleasures of whatever ‘the other worlds’; you will still retain the sense of separateness and your ego; and so there will be a time limit to your enjoyment, with a distinct chance for going astray anywhere along the line. Once you have finished your entitlements, back you go to ‘Squire One’ and start all over again! ThiruvaLLuvar is talking on similar lines when he says, “பொருளில்லார்க்கு இவ்வுலகம் இல்லை, அருளில்லார்க்கு அவ்வுலகம் இல்லை”. That means ‘this world is not for those who lack the resources and that world is not for those who lack the Grace’! Iham is இவ்வுலகம் and ‘amutra’ is அவ்வுலகம். Even those pleasures in those worlds are not ‘आत्मानन्दं’.
126. Even the happiness of Brhmaloka will have a time limit as it will vanish in the Pralaya (dissolution of the worlds) at the end of a Kalpa. (Though a Kalpa is a very long period, it is still not eternal!) All that happiness is still only infinitesimally short and small in comparison to Aatma Saakshaatkaara! So you have to give up all expectations including what you may be looking forward to enjoy in such heavens and that is Vairaagyam in the true sense. That is what is said to be ‘इहामुत्रफलभोग विराग’. The फल referred here is the expectations of returns or benefits one is looking forward to in those worlds. Those who have gone beyond the pull of any of those temptations and expectations are really the masters of Vairaagya, known as, ‘veetaraagi_s’ as mentioned in the song ‘Vaataapi GaNapatim’ – वीतरागिणं विनत योगिनं. In Mundakopanishad, Rishis are said to be those who have found complete satisfaction in Aatma Gnaana. Such people who have found their own reality as the Aatman are the Veetaraagi_s, who are also Prashanta_s.
127. There is a synonym of Vairaagyam, as ‘nirvedam’. The dispassion you feel towards all worldly affairs in ‘nirvedam’. In Alankara Saastra it is said that the cause for ‘Shaanta Rasam’, the peacefulness devoid of agitations, is ‘nirvedam’. This is also mentioned in Mundakopanishad. Our AachaaryaaL has translated this word ’nirvedam’ as ‘Vairaagyam’ only. In Karma Marga, the Yagnaas considered to be worthy of admiration are the ones known as, ‘ishta poortam_s’ and social service. But they are also only the preliminaries which, having fetched the Saadhak to Gnaana Yoga, have to be given the ‘go by’! People who think of these Yagnaas as ‘the be-all and end-all’ by themselves, instead of being only part of the preliminaries; are not just normal idiots but, specially selected and filtered fools, called the ‘pramooda_s’, ‘प्रमूढाः’, says the Upanishad. Then it says, “If the Brahmin is intelligent enough, he will understand after due investigation and analysis that however much a highly sophisticated the Yagnya may be, all the returns out of such actions, including attainment of Heavens are only Anityam. He has to come to understand that, the ‘action less’ Brhmam can never be attained through activities and so get ‘nirvedam’ aka Vairaagyam; seek and approach a Guru, ever established in Brhmam, get Upadesa and get the Brhma Gnaana oneself also”.
128. Karma Yoga is the first stage and to get Upadesa from the Guru as a Sanyaasi for Aatma Gnaana is the third stage. In between what comes as the second stage is the Saadhana Chatushtyam, in which, the second step is this Vairaagyam, as we had seen earlier. But here, having mentioned the first stage of Karma Yoga, in the next stage only Vairaagyam is talked about, from which there is a direct jump to the third stage of Brhma Gnaana Upadesa! From this itself you can make out that this one single factor of Vairaagyam is good enough that, all manifold steps of Saadhana Chatushtyam seem to be getting dissolved in it! While doing Bhashyam for this Upanishad, our AachaaryaaL, in discussing what is worldly Apara Vidya and what is Para Vidya itself says; ‘if you go to a Guru with the clear and firm grasp of Vairaagyam’ and get Upadesa from him, then only you can hope to see the light at the end of the tunnel – the light of Aatma Gnaana – गुर्वाभिगमनादि लक्षणं वैराग्यं – singling out only Vairaagyam as the essential qualification.
129. Vairaagyam is disgust with the things seen and heard by eyes, ears (including also with taste, smell and touch by the other such senses) as we had seen already –“दर्शन_श्रवण आदिभि: जुगुप्सा”. Sri Krishna Paramaatma makes a differentiation between what has been heard and what is required to be heard! Already what we have heard in lectures, discussions, in passing and read in papers and magazines – that is all part of what is already heard. Based on what is already recorded in your memory, either you are anxious for more or already fed up and still hopeful to hear something more interesting or inviting or attractive. Similar is the case with other sense organs in relation to which we have had some experiences and some expectations; it may be cinema, drama, TV Serial, magazines, virtual experiences or encounters or may be music, dance, get-togethers, eats, smells, promotions, postings, awards recognition or revenge or accounts to be settled and inter personal encounters and so on! We have to develop the dispassion about all the past experiences and all the future expectations.
130. In his Bhashyam, our AachaaryaaL says that, Nirvedam is the same as Vairaagyam. The mind of ours which is dirtied by the sensual mire can get the Vairaagyam only when it comes out of the mire and close all the doors, about the entire past experiences and future expectations, with a firm resolve. Without Vairaagyam our power of discernment between Aatman and Anaatma will be confused. To be without Raagam that is desire, is Vairaagyam and such a person is Vairaagi or what is known in the North as Bairaagi. That is, this one quality of dispassion has become so important that the Vairaagi as a determined man of dispassion is automatically equated with the renouncing Sannyaasi that the two words have become synonymous! The one who has given up Raaga and Dvesha is Bairaagi whereas the one who has not given up his desires is Raagi. Such a person is said to be कामयमान: for example Bruhad AaraNyaka Upanishad IV.4.6. As such a person is driven by passion to destruction, he is called कामहतन and the antonym for that is अकामयमान: or अकामहतन.
131. Thus these two words Raagam and Kaamam are both considered as synonyms with desire, though there is a slight variation in their meanings. In Bhagawat Gita, (Chapter VII – Sloka 11), Sri Krishna has used a phrase, काम-राग विवर्जितं, where we cannot make out the subtle difference in meaning between them. In such areas, we can always rely on our AachaaryaaL to help us out with his Bhashyam, isn’t it? He clarifies that Kaamam is the thirst for those experiences yet to be had and Raagam is for an encore! We do not have to bother about such minute differences and think of both these two words as synonyms of desire.
132. The man lacking control on his desires is known as कामयमान: and the one with Vairaagyam is the opposite अकामयमान: says the Upanishad. The first one कामयमान:, thinking Karma to be the means for all returns, does all his duties, meets all his schedules doing all the Karma Anushtaanaas, goes to ‘Para Loka’ after death, enjoys as he has earned and after his account is settled and balanced out, takes birth again for a repetition of the cycle – पुनरपि जननं पुनरपि मरणं पुनरपि जननी जठरे शयनं इह संसारे बहुदुस्तारे कृपया पारे पाहि मुरारे! The other chap is अकामयमान: a man full of Vairaagyam; he is Akaaman when he is refusing the pull of desires and Nishkaaman when all desires run away from him and then he becomes ‘Aaptakaaman’, that is, when he thinks of a thing and it is his! I am not saying all this. It is the Upanishad which makes these subtle observations! Then the question comes up as to what can this man ‘अकामयमान:’ wish for, when he has no more desires? What is there for him to attain or achieve? This Akaama, Nishkaama, Aaptakaaman desires for only the Aatman on reaching which he becomes Aatman, sans a separate identity. As long as he lives in the mortal body he is an embodiment of Para Brhmam and after the mortal coil falls, he merges and abides in the Aatman, says Bruhad AaraNyaka Upanishad. To be devoid of desires that is, being full of Vairaagyam is thus considered as the qualitative requirement for Brhma Anubhava.
133. A ‘Srotriyan’ with deep and abiding knowledge of the Vedas, who is also one who has vanquished all his desires, what is his level of happiness? This analysis is done both in Taitreeya Upanishad, Ananda Vallee, Chapter 8 and Brhad AaraNyaka Upanishad (IV.3.33.); slightly differently. But the message is the same. If you take a well-endowed mortal human being who is a sort of a leader in his clan or country, with money, wealth, relatives, friends, landed property and influence and power and take his happiness level as Unit 1; then that of the Pithru Loka – the World of Manes is 100 times more; then the happiness level of that of celestial minstrels of Gandarva Loka is a further 100 times more than that of Pithru Loka; then the happiness level of Prajapati Loka is another 100 times more of that of Gandarva Loka; then finally is the world of Brhma another 100 times more happier! But, the point to note is that in all these cases the level of happiness is the same as a fraction of what this ‘Srotriyan’ with deep and abiding knowledge of the Vedas, who is also one who has vanquished all his desires! So the most important point anyhow is vanquishing of one’s own Kaama and absolute Vairaagyam; is what is required as the main criteria, for the highest level of happiness!
(To be continued.)
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