DEIVATHIN KURAL # 47 (Vol # 6) Dated 31 Aug 2012
DEIVATHIN KURAL # 47 (Vol # 6) Dated 31 Aug 2012
(These e-mails are translations of talks given by PeriyavaaL of Kanchi Kaamakoti Peetam, over a period of some 60 years while he was the pontiff in the earlier part of the last century. These have been published by Vanadi Padippagam, Chennai, in seven volumes of a thousand pages each as Deivathin Kural. Today we are going ahead from the middle of page No 321 of Volume 6 of the Tamil original. The readers may note that herein ‘man/he’ includes ‘woman/she’ too mostly. These e-mails are all available at http://Advaitham.blogspot.com updated constantly)
144. If you leave your household and Karma Anushtaanaas out of spite or disappointment, being unhappy with whatever, that would not be real Vairaagyam. The aim should be to realize the eternal bliss of Aatma Anubhava to make use of this dispassion. Then only your action will become a step in the right direction and as you progress, this disgust and dispassion will slowly fade away leaving only the unconditional universal love as the only lingering attitude. Correct understanding of Nitya-Anitya dichotomy as to what is really forever and what is fleetingly temporary has to go hand in hand with prudence in practicing Vairaagyam. Without diligence and prudence you will not have dispassion and vice versa; that is without Vairaagyam you cannot have Viveka either!
145. First you identified as to what is eternal (Nitya) and what is temporary (Anitya) in all the things animate and inanimate around you, the value systems, relationships and set aside all the things that are temporary. Then you come to realize that everything in this world or universe is only Anitya, thus inculcating Vairaagyam with diligence. Then your mind can deliberate and focus on the only permanent entity in the whole of existence! That is why our AachaaryaaL has given so much importance to this principle of Vairaagyam, mentioned at the very start in ‘Aparoksha Anubhuti’. In Viveka ChudamaNi too, he says that ‘intense Vairaagyam, that is extreme detachment from finite objects of sensual satisfaction; is the first cause for release and freedom of Moksha – “मोक्षस्य हेतु: प्रथमो निगद्यते वैराग्यमत्यन्तमनित्य वस्तुषु”; thus connecting the two requirements of नित्या अनित्य विवेक विचार: and वैराग्यं. We have so far covered these two points of Saadhana Chatushtyam. Now we can proceed to the third point. Though none of us may have Viveka or Vairaagya, at least the words are a little well known. Often we use these two words together. But, I wonder if the words describing subsequent points of Saadhana Chatushtyam would be known to people at all! Anyhow, the third point is, ‘Sama aadhi shatka sampathi’ – (समाधि शट्क संपत्ति – meaning ‘the six assets starting with ‘Sama’); and the fourth point is ‘Mumukshutvam’ (मुमुक्षुत्वं)!
146. The third point of Saadhana Chatushtyam is ‘Sama aadhi shatka sampathi’ – (समाधि शट्क संपत्ति), meaning that there are six assets namely, ‘Sama, Dhama, Uparati, Titiksha, Shraddha and Samaadhaanam’ – सम, धम, उपरति, तितिक्षा, श्रद्धा, & समादानम्. Amongst these six points, generally the word Sraddha and Samaadaanam may be thought of as understood as they are used in the colloquial Tamil. Still your understanding may not be accurate as they are used with some slightly different meaning. The actual meaning of Sraddha is ‘total trust’. The complete faith in the words of Vedas, Saastraas and Guru is Sraddha. But, normally it is mistaken to mean ‘sincerity’, for example someone may say, “He came and complained about the behaviour of such and such a person with a lot of Sraddha”! Similarly, your understanding of ‘Samadaanam’ may be slightly wrong. This I will clarify later, when I give you the meaning of each word of this, समाधि शट्क संपत्ति one by one covering सम, धम, उपरति, तितिक्षा, श्रद्धा, & समादानम्. I will tell you about it then. (He smiles while saying this.) By making you expectantly wait, I will be able to increase the interest, isn’t it? Before serving the dinner, they display the ‘Menu’ with only some exotic names in it, don’t they? Like that I have given you the menu only!
147. Samaadi Shatka Sampathi. This word Samaadi is made of Sama + Aadi, meaning ‘Sama and others’. Shatka means six in numbers. Sampathi means wealth. So, the three words put together mean, ‘the six valuable assets starting with Sama’. What are those six assets? First is Sama, second Dama, third Uparati, fourth Titiksha, fifth Sraddha, and sixth Samaadaanam. The six qualities starting with Sama have been listed by our AachaaryaaL. In the Brhma Sutra (III.4.27), where it is said, ‘शमदम माद्युपेत: स्यात्थापि तु तद्विधे’, meaning thereby, “For obtaining Gnaana the Saadhak should be having the six qualities starting with Sama and Dama, as given in the Vedas – तद्विधे. Who has given this order? Who else but, God who has given us the Vedas!
148. Now if you ask another question as to, “Where in the Vedas is it given that a Saadhak should be adopting the six qualities starting with Sama and Dama”, the answer is in Bruhad AaraNyaka Upanishad, where Yagnyavalkya advices Janaka with the following words. “Gnaani is ‘shaantan’ peaceful (having Sama), ‘daantan’ (having Dama), ‘uparatan’ (having Uparati), titikshu (having Titiksha) and ‘samaahitan’ (having the quality of Samaadaana). Does it not automatically mean that those are the qualities required for anyone to become a Gnaani? Here Sraddha has not been mentioned. Elsewhere in the Vedas, the importance of the quality of Sraddha has been highlighted as an essential quality of an aspiring Saadhak! So, including that quality the six are सम, धम, उपरति, तितिक्षा, श्रद्धा, & समादानम्.
149. Sama Defined. In Viveka ChudamaNi, our AachaaryaaL has given a definition for ‘Sama’ as follows: –
“विरज्य विषयव्राताद्दोष दृष्ट्या मुहुर्मुहु: | स्वलक्श्ये नियतावस्था मनस: शम उच्यते ||” That would mean, ‘the peaceful state of the mind when it rests constantly upon the contemplation of the Goal after having again and again detached itself from the chaos of the sense objects through a process of continuous observation of their defects, is called sama.
150. Sound, touch, form, taste and smell, are the five things that bodily sensors wish to wallow in all the time. Together, these have been mentioned as ‘vishaya vraatam’. These have to be repeatedly, analysed with Viveka and Vairaagyam and abjured – मुहुर्मुहु: दोष दृष्ट्या विरज्य – by seeing the harmfulness of those sensual titillations one has to develop a feeling of hate towards them. Mind is ever thinking of such things for enjoyment due to being unaware of what is really good for us. Once we develop this animus towards sensual arousal and excitement, then only will our mind get a whiff of peace and comfort of the Aatman and start working for its sustained retention. Bringing the mind to the right path towards the coveted aim with control is Sama. By repeatedly thinking about the harmfulness of विषय व्रात दोष and abjuring them, then to redirect the mind on to one’s selected aim स्वलक्श्ये नियतावस्था मनस: is known as शम. In short, control of the mind is sama. This is the definition as per Viveka ChudamaNi.
151. The reason why the mind spreads itself on sensual matters like a creeper plant on a tree is due to, memory or smell of the past known as ‘Vaasana’. This bouquet and emanation is even carried over life times. When this gross body dies, this unique power of the subtle mind carries these ‘Vaasanaas’ in to the ‘sookshma sareera’ (subtle body) and again into the next gross body that is taken. These residual aromas start becoming effectively active once again. (This can be gleaned from the fact that sometimes we find too small children displaying a penchant for a violin or flute or any other form of fine art; with evident mastery, which could not have been learnt in this life time anyhow! That is an example for some good and salubrious Vaasanaas. But, the smells of past misdeeds and bad habits happen to be more powerfully catching and riveting!) If those Vaasanaas are fully erased and rooted out, the mind will automatically subside. This is another definition for sama that our AachaaryaaL has given in Aparoksha Anubhuti Sloka No. 6 – “सदैव वासना त्याग: समोयमिति सब्दित: – that is, to get rid of the tendency and promptings for experiencing sensual pleasures is known as sama. So finally, if we understand that, ‘sama is to keep our minds on a tight leash’, it is enough.
152. Next in the order is the quality of dama. There is still more to be said about the quality of sama. But since the control of mind (sama) and control of the senses (dama), go hand in hand, having spoken certain basic facts about the second, then I will talk in detail about both of them together. The word ‘pulan’ (that is புலன் in Tamil) is called इन्द्रियं in Sanskrit. There are five each of कर्मेन्द्रियाणि and ज्ञानेन्द्रियाणि. The first lot are hands capable of a variety of works such as writing, drawing, sculpting, shaping, touching, squeezing, sewing, knitting, pinching and so many other actions. Hands are known as karam करम् and the actions by them together are ‘kaaryam’ – कर्म or कार्यं. That is one Karmendriyam. Then are the legs by which we walk, run, jump and kick, to name a few. So, that is also a Karmendriyam. Mouth by which we eat, speak, sing, shout, spit, chew and swallow is another. Then there are two other कर्मेन्द्रियाणि, the anus and genital meant for excreting and procreation.
153. Then there are five sensors known as ज्ञानेन्द्रियाणि, which do not directly do the actions but enable sensing, comprehending and experiencing. In this are the eyes for sight, ears for sound, skin for touch, tongue for taste, and nose for smell, aroma, fragrance and stink. These कर्मेन्द्रियाणि and ज्ञानेन्द्रियाणि can be used or misused and that is done by the mind. Control of the limbs and sensors is dama and control of the mind is sama. When we do not control these limbs and sensors, the whole lot of a generation of sinfulness come into being! The craving and desire for the pleasures and titillations that these bodily limbs and sensors could give are the binding ties that keep us involved in this world of Maya. To control them is dama. So we can note that control of the mind, that is sama is inclusive of the control over the sensors and limbs, that is dama.
154. Now there has to be question naturally as to why are we saddled with two different words for the same need of control over the mind? However there is a distinction. Control of कर्मेन्द्रियाणि and ज्ञानेन्द्रियाणि is all about this human body and its responses to the world outside. That is one aspect. In addition to that, this mind of ours is capable of generating thoughts, ever vacillating, imagining, assuming and in a virtual world of its own, with nothing to do with the real world or the limbs and sensors of the body! So, there is a second aspect of control of the mind per se! So as to differentiate between the two, elders before us in their prudence have coined these two words as ‘sama’ for control of the mind and ‘dama’ for control of the bodily sensors and limbs. It is interesting to note that our AachaaryaaL has used these two words in the exact opposite manner, in the ‘Shat Padee’ Stotra. Where it is control of the mind, he has said, ‘दमय मन:’ and for control of the bodily sensors and limbs, he has said, ‘समय विषय मृग तृष्णां’!
(To be continued.)
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