DEIVATHIN KURAL # 49 (Vol # 6) Dated 04 Sept 2012
DEIVATHIN KURAL # 49 (Vol # 6) Dated 04 Sept 2012
(These e-mails are translations of talks given by PeriyavaaL of Kanchi Kaamakoti Peetam, over a period of some 60 years while he was the pontiff in the earlier part of the last century. These have been published by Vanadi Padippagam, Chennai, in seven volumes of a thousand pages each as Deivathin Kural. Today we are going ahead from page No 336 of Volume 6 of the Tamil original. The readers may note that herein ‘man/he’ includes ‘woman/she’ too mostly. These e-mails are all available at http://Advaitham.blogspot.com updated constantly)
165. If we take this word ‘GoLakam’ to mean an orbit also instead of a circle or sphere only, I think that it would be more appropriate. In the solar system for example, the planets have to keep moving in an orbit of their own so that despite the dynamic movement of all the planetary spheres, there is an overall balance that keeps each other in their respective orbit. There is imbalance when they go out of their orbits. Similarly these ten Indriyaas have to keep moving in their orbits. When they stop their movements it leads to total collapse and death. Then ‘punar api jananam’, that is, take another birth and start all over again!
166. Here there is a problem. On the one hand there is the most positive message in Bhagawat Gita where in Chapter 6, Slokas 40 to 42, he positively assures that the one who has failed in reaching his destination in the spiritual path but has made sincere efforts, is enabled to re-commence his journey again from where he left off in his next life! On the other hand, there is a genuine fear of what Thaayum Aanavar said, (“இப்பிறவி தப்பினால் எப்பிறவி வாய்க்குமோ?”), meaning that, ‘if I miss out in this life, I do not know what sort of a life I will have and when will I ever become a human being again, I will never know! Then to remember as to where we had gone off the track or dropped out of the race, is another imponderable!’ As per one analysis and finding, to be born as a human being as against any other life form is a possibility of one in 8.4 million! At least now we are sitting and listening to someone in the position of our Guru, talk about Aatman and about Saadhana that is, making an effort towards Self-Realization! So, we have to stabilize the senses to move in an orderly manner in their own orbit and not bring them to a stand-still! Thus not only the Gnaanendriyas but Karmendriyas also should be kept disciplined in an acceptably orderly manner.
167. Adding the Manas aka Mind to the Gnaana & Karma Indriyas, there is a way of numbering the Indriyas as 11 (ekadasa एकादस). The 11 Rudras are considered as the ‘Atidevata-s’ of the eleven Indriyas. The eleventh day after the full or new moon as a ‘Titi’ is said to be Ekaadasi. The fasting on ekaadasi is meant to starve the eleven Indriyas, thereby giving them a break and restart on the twelfth. “The mind connected to the two types of Indriyas should be thought of as the eleventh, getting command and winning over which will be as good as winning over the balance ten also”, says Manu (Manusmruti II.92.). There is another method of qualification as per which the mind is considered as the sixth one amongst the Gnaanendriyas, as Sri Krishna says in the Gita (Chapter XV Sloka 7), “……मन: शष्टानीन्द्रियाणि ......” Then of course while broadcasting his own greatness (in Slokas 20 to 42, in Chapter X of Bhagawat Gita), as to how he is, “the jasmine amongst fragrant flowers; the Gayatri amongst Chandas [poetical metres]; Japa amongst all types of Yagna-s; the river Jahnavi amongst all rivers; Saama Veda amongst Vedas and so on; he says, “इन्द्रियाणां मनश्चास्मि”, as amongst Indriyas he is the Manas!
168. Our AachaaryaaL also has expressed similar views. For example the Indriyas are also known as ‘KaraNam / करणं’. As it does the inner activities of fulfilling the man’s desires, calculations, planning, experiencing happiness and sorrow, aspirating and motivating from the inner side, it is known as the ‘अन्तःकरणं’. This has been depicted along with the five ‘Gnaanendriyas / ज्ञानेन्द्रियपञ्चकं’, as the sixth, in Soundarya Lahari (Sloka 90), “तवास्मिन्मन्दारस्तबकसुभके यातु चरणे निमज्जन्मज्जीवः करणचरणः षट्चरणताम् ||”, thereby meaning, “fully merged in your lotus feet this mind of mine with the five other inner abilities, be the bee”. The word ‘yaatu’ means, ‘let it reach’! Why does he say that let my mind “be the bee”? Because it is the bee with six feet, that reaches the flower with the pollens and nectar. Like that for the Jivan, for all the movements the six ‘KaraNam’ are the ‘kaaraNam’, (that is the reason)! So, this ‘aasaami / ஆசாமி’ or this man is also a bee, that reaches the lotus feet of AmbaaL inebriated with the pollen’s fragrance and the nectar. Then the five Indriya-s and the mind, become the six करणचरणः, that will be subdued and Jivan submerged with ‘sama’ and ‘dama’! AmbaaL is holding the sugar cane Bow and Arrow of flowers, isn’t it? They will keep our ‘अन्तःकरणं’ under control!
169. So mind control and sensory control has to happen in a mutually complimentary manner. These two are part of the practices that the Saadhak has to keep at. You have to do them together and not one after the other, as I told you already earlier. In the matter of ‘sama’ and ‘dama’, the need for this practice becomes more critical and essential. May be at times, instead of intellectually doing it, involuntarily the sensory perceptions may rebel against their natural tendencies and aspire for greater understanding of the mysteries of existence; when the mind may seem to be at a stand-still! But mostly it is the mind that is the inquisitive explorer, accumulator of data and the processor, deliberately done to satisfy the mind’s desires. So, without control of the mind that is ‘sama’, to control only the ‘pulan’ aka the senses that is ‘dama’, is still the job of the mind only. It is one mind only that achieves both these controls.
170. Sri Krishna Paramaatma says in Gita (Chapter III Sloka 7), “इन्द्रियाणि मनसा नियम्य आरभते”; to mean that the process of ‘dama’ is started by controlling of the senses by the mind. Almost using the same word construct he says elsewhere in Gita (Chapter VI Sloka 24), “मनसैवेन्द्रियग्रामं विनियम्य”, meaning thereby – ‘controlling all the sensors together by the mind’ – ‘मनसा + एव = मनसैव’. Having so controlled, then what? Then, “शनै शनै उपरमेत” (as given in the start of the next sloka), bit by bit attain to quietude desisting from sensual enjoyment. That ‘uparati’ is the next step in the six sampatti. Bhagawan Sri Krishna often mixes these two steps ‘sama’ and ‘dama’ for each other. In another sloka (Gita Chapter VIII Sloka 12), he says, “सर्व द्वाराणि संयम्य मनो हृदि निरुद्य च”. Here, ‘सर्व द्वाराणि संयम्य’ is ‘sama’ and ‘मनो हृदि निरुद्य च’ is ‘dama’. The first phrase ‘sarva dwaaraaNi samyamya’ means, ‘having plugged all holes’. The Gnaanendriyas are all so many holes, namely the eyes, ears, nose, mouth, and the skin (with hair follicles), including the anus, genitals too! The eyes are located in holes in the skull and the rays of light from the outer world pass through a hole like lens in the darling of the eye. You do not totally plug all the holes but let them open for some essential functions only. So, ‘sarva dwaaraaNi samyamya’ is indriya nigraha ‘dama’ only and ‘mano hrudi nirudya’ is the same as ‘sama’ only!
171. “All the ‘भाव’ of the life forms of emotions, sentiments, temperaments and attitudes are from me only”, Bhagawan says (in Gita Chapter X Sloka 4 & 5), : –
“बुद्धिर्ज्ञानमसंमोहः क्षमा सत्यं दमः शमः |
सुखं दुःखं भाव अभावो भयं च अभयम् एव च ||
अहिंसा समता तुष्टिस्तपो दानं यशो अयशः |
भवन्ति भावा भूतानां मत्त एव पृथग्विधा: ||” Meaning, “Intellect, wisdom, non-delusion, forgiveness, truth, self-restraint, calmness, happiness, pain, birth or existence, death or non-existence, fear and also fearlessness, non-injury, equanimity, contentment, austerity, beneficence, ill-fame – all these kinds of qualities of beings also arise from Me alone!” Here he has included ‘dama’ and ‘sama’ as qualities from Him only! Later (in Gita Chapter XVI Sloka 1 & 2), while listing the divine attributes, he says “दानं दमश्च”, thus again touching on ‘dama’ and in “त्यागः शान्ति” touching ‘sama’. I had already told you that ‘dama’ gives ‘daanti’ and ‘sama’ gives ‘shanti’.
172. Sanyaasi is also called as ‘Yati’, as you may know already. Aazhwaar Ramanuja was called as ‘Ethiraja’. People have names as ‘Ethiraj’. This word is derived from ‘Yati Raja’, to mean a King of Saints. The direct meaning of the word ‘Yati’ is the one who has exercised control. ‘Yama’ and ‘Yati’ both are indicative of the power of control. Yama the God of Death takes people to his Yama Loka like a ‘High Security Quarantine’ of the present day world and controls, punishes and sorts them out literally that, people shiver to even hear his name that, his place is known as ‘samyamani’ meaning ‘the correctional’! That is about Yama who controls others. Yati on the other hand controls himself and so, he is called ‘Yataatma’ and ‘Samyataatma’ in Gita and other Saastraas. If the place of Yama is ‘Samyamani’, the Sanyaasi who strictly exercises control over his self is called ‘Samyataatma’ and ‘Samyami’, as he keeps his mind and senses under a tight leash as an achiever of ‘sama’ and ‘dama’!
173. In Gita (Chapter IV Sloka 39) Sri Krishna says, “श्रद्दवान्लभते ज्ञानं तत्परः संयतेन्द्रियः”, meaning that, “The man who is full of faith, who is devoted to it, and who has subdued the senses obtains this knowledge”, which also means that others cannot come anywhere near Gnaana. He has included Shraddha, Sama and Dama; mentioned in Saadhana Chatushtyam. While talking about the definition of a Stita Pragna (स्थितप्रज्ञ), Sri Krishna describes this in Gita (Chapter II Sloka 58) with a beautiful example of the Tortoise. When confronted with a threat, the Tortoise pulls all its exposed limbs within, making it extremely difficult for the predator animal to hurt it in any way. But a Tortoise does it only under threat. But, for a man as long as he lets his senses run riot, it is always dangerous. If a Tortoise pulls in only its head and fore and hind legs, the human being has to rein them in at all the times in all ways. This he emphasises by putting in the word ‘सर्वशः’. (It is interesting to note that the very word ‘rein’ (‘re + in = rein’) in English, seems to convey the protective manoeuvre of the Tortoise!) The Sanskrit text of the Sloka reads, “यदा संहरते चायं कूर्मोङ्गानिव सर्वशः”
(To be continued.)
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