KURAL # 115 (Vol # 7) Dated 04 Mar 2014
(These e-mails are translations of talks given by PeriyavãL of
Kanchi Kaamakoti Peetam, over a period of some 60 years while he was the
pontiff in the earlier part of the last century. These have been published by
Vanadi Padippagam, Chennai, in seven volumes of a thousand pages each as
Deivathin Kural. Today we are going ahead from page No 874 of Volume 7 of the
Tamil original. The readers may note that herein ‘man/he’ includes ‘woman/she’
too mostly. These e-mails are all available at http://Advaitham.blogspot.com
Names That End in 'm' or 'n' in Tamil
41. In North India they have names such as
'Sadasiva', ending neither in 'n' or 'm' that could be construed as 'Sadasivan'
or 'Sadasivam', leaving it in a not so very clear state. In Tamil, it is not like that. Though there are many names of persons ending
in 'n' such as, Raman, Krishnan, Rajan, GaNesan, SubrahmaNyan, but we make an
exception in the case of Sadasivan, saying no to Sadasivan and accepting
only Sadasivam! As shown in Vedas
the way the Sadasiva name has been added to the PraNava Mantra and shown as
being one with Brhmam, here in Tamil Nadu we choose Sivam instead of Sivan.
42. ` Some
of us are named with place names such as 'Chidambaram' and 'Sri Rangam'. If the Saivites name themselves as
'Panjãksharam' and 'Namasivãyam', Vaishnavites name themselves as 'Bhãshyam'
and 'Vedãntam'. These are all names of
deep philosophical principles given to individuals as names. There is nothing special in doing so, because
place names and names of principles / Tattva being neuter gender will end in 'm'
only. In this general area of
Kanchipuram, many people are naming their children as 'Ekãmbaram'. In fact it is 'Ekãmram' that is the mango
tree that gives only one mango fruit every year, has that name as 'Ekãmram'
which has been distorted into 'Ekãmbaram' wrongly. Ambaram means the sky and so to call
'Ekãmram' as 'Ekãmbaram', is like calling the 'one-fruit-mango-tree' as the
'one-sky'! 'Ambaram' is a morphing of
'Ambalam' or vice-versa as people are named as 'Ambalam' and 'Ponnambalam', as
these words finish in neuter 'm', there is nothing special to talk about
them. So are others named after
insentient names of gems such as, 'MaNikkam', 'Rathinam', 'Raja MaNikkam',
'Nãga Rathinam' and there are many other names like this ending in 'm', since
the thing imparting the name has been an insentient material, the human name
also happens to be of neuter gender.
43. Even in some rare names as
'Ramabrhmam' and 'Ramãvatãram' the ending 'brhmam and avatãram', have retained
their original form. The weapon of Maha
Vishnu such as 'Sudarshanam' and
SubrahmaNya's weapon 'Velayudham' also, being similarly from neuter gender,
imparting their names to human beings ending in 'm' is all quite in order. Differing from all these examples quoted
above, there is a special and unique distinction of 'Sadasivam' ending in 'm',
despite there being a name as 'Sadasivan' in Tamil and 'Sadasiva:' – 'सदाशिव:' in Sanskrit; that it is more popularly
known and used as 'Sadasivam', is that special distinction. More than the SaguNa Murthy 'Sadasiva:' of
relevance in the Dwaita Prapancham; our fore fathers who have
endowed us with rich classic traditions in South India, have thought of this
'Sadasivam' – 'सदाशिवं' as the NirguNa Adwaita Tattva Lakshya to be aspired for as the
Ideal; is what we can be truly proud of!
gender will generally be an insentient Jada material only. But names such as Sivam, Vedãntam, Avatãram,
Gnãnam, Sivagnãnam, Sivãnandam and such given to human beings will be in a
higher fourth level gender, far higher than ordinary mortals. It is Sivam which is the end message of
Vedãntam and the Gnãnam that causes it.
In a way of looking at it, all moving and non-moving living and
non-living forms and materials are all its creations, its replicas and
copies. All the things of the world are
from that source, as Brhma Sutram 1.1.2 says, 'janmãdyasya yata:' – 'जन्माद्यस्य
यत: |' This limited sense of Jiva Bhava is discarded, to become
the undivided one as the Ãtma sans decay and be the eternal truth, we add that
prefix as 'Sada', and not as 'Sãdã' which means just common. 'Sadasivam' is literally a statement of the
Vedas. There was a great Gnãni by the
name of Sadãsiva Brhmam who was adoringly addressed as 'Sadãsiva BrhmendrãL'.
are two more names to be uttered along with 'Sadasivam' – both names of Muruga
aka SubrahmaNya Swami only. One is
'SubrahmaNyam'. Though there are many
having a name as 'SubrahmaNyan', I think there will be more SubrahmaNyam-s than
SubrahmaNyan-s. As one of the names of
that Swami, we name our children as 'Shanmugam' but never as 'Shanmugan'. The same thing in Tamil will be 'Arumugam' –
'ஆறுமுகம்'. For some reason the Brahmins do not prefer
the name Shanmugam though it is very much a Sanskrit name. So also, names such
as 'Kumaresa' and 'Kumaraswami' are not much preferred by Brahmins. But 'Kumar' seems to be more preferred nowadays
as it sounds a bit modern, without noticing the fact that it is one of the
names of SubrahmaNya. As the most
important mantra of Kumara Swami, the six-lettered 'shadaksharee' – 'षडाक्षरी' – 'Sa Ra Va Na Bha Va', becoming
'சரவணன்' or ' சரவணபவ', for some reason is also not
preferred by Brahmins.
the names of Kumara Swami, after SubrahmaNyam, I find the name, 'Swami Nãtha'
or 'Swaminathan', is more popular with the Brahmins. In recent times the name Karthikeya is seen
to be becoming more popular as an amended version as Kartik. Because he gave Upadesãs to his father
Dakshinamurthy, He is called the Guruswami and Gurumurthy, which are also
becoming rather popular with Brahmins.
Some are named as 'Siva Guru' and though 'Deva Senapathy' is a Sanskrit
name, it is rarely used as a name for the new born babies. The name 'Skanda' is one of the important
names of Muruga, as the PurãNam describing his birth is called 'Skãndam' or
'Skanda PurãNam'. Still it is not as
popular with Brahmins, as it is with non-Brahmins who lovingly call him
'Kandasãmi' – 'கந்தசாமி'. In trying to explain the occurrence of the
ending in 'm' of 'Sadasivam', I seem to have gone far afield! Let me come back. The names ending in 'm' such as SubrahManyam,
Shanmugam, Arumugam are all of some exceptional value as related to
'Sadasivam'. These are closely related
to what the Vedas adoringly worship, the sixth face of Easwara in addition to
his already existing five!
'ULmugat Deiva MaNI – உள்முகத் தெய்வமணி'
47. I told
you about the fact that Easwara has one face each towards the cardinal
directions and that he has a face looking up and that its name is 'oordva
mukha' – 'ऊर्ध्व मुख', isn't it?
Similarly the sixth face is supposed to be looking down and is known as
'adho mukha' – 'अधो मुख'. 'Oordvam' means
up and 'Adho' means down. Though in the
colloquial 'Adho Gati' has come to mean the 'Path to the nether worlds of
Hell', as a name of Siva there is no such demeaning implication. About God everything is a matter of
exaltation only. He does not look up to
somebody or look down on others. His
sight or glance is always welcome from wherever, down or up or a side-long
48. The sky
or Ãkãsa is 'Param' that is high above, as representing lofty and elevating
principles. For the indivisible and vast
Brhmam the gross representation is the wide open skies. The fifth face of Siva as Sadasiva, looking
at the vast expanse of the skies, I called it the very Brhmam. As Swami is so supreme and absolute beyond
any comparison, it is called the 'Para Tattva'.
Like the prefix 'Sada' is unique for Siva, this 'Para / Parama' are also
applicable only for Siva as we call him variously as, Parama Siva, Parama
Sivam, Parameswara, and Sadasiva; and it is also applicable to Shakti as Para
Shakti. Even children say
'Paramasivan-Parvathy' with freedom and familiarity!
that be on one side. I was saying that
the face looking up is the 'Oordva Mukha' and opposite of that, the face
looking down is not to be thought of anything derogatory. It is 'Adho Mukha' and not 'Adhama
Mukha'. In a way that looking down is to
look under the level of the eye into one's heart. So instead of looking down, it should be
considered as 'looking-in' or 'inward-looking'.
With the five faces as known to be the faces of Siva as already
explained, the sixth is that of SubrahmaNya Swami, as the 'Inner Looking Eye'. This is what is being referred to by VaLLalãr
Ramalinga Swami when he says, 'ULmugat Deiva MaNIye – உள்முகத் தெய்வமணியே', as the divine gem inside
our hearts, the indwelling reality.
50. What is
that indwelling reality? The outer skies
of Ãkãsa is indivisibly vast expanse of Ãtma Swaroopa aka Para Brhma
Swaroopa. Those same wide open spaces
are not only outside but also inside as 'Dahara Ãkãsa' – 'दहर
known in Tamil as the 'Chitrambalam' – 'சிற்றம்பலம்', where Siva is dancing. That dance is aptly named 'Pancha Kritya
Parama Ãnanda Thãndavam'. The five major
jobs of the divine beings which I have described often as Srushti, Stiti, Samhãra,
Tirodãna and Anugraha; are being famously done here in our hearts in the dance
form by Siva as Nataraja. The fifth
'Oordva Mukha' that does the job of 'Anugraha' is done by the left leg. So, that leg itself is not only elevated high
up, it is venerated as the fount of the power of Anugraha, as a separate Swami,
'Kunchita Pãdam' – 'குஞ்சித பாதம்'! In Chidambaram along with
Nataraja Murthy, this left leg is also venerated as a separate 'Kunchita Pãda Murthy'. Every
night it is this 'Kunchita Pãda Murthy' that is put to sleep with elaborate rituals.
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