Tuesday, September 25, 2012

DEIVATHIN KURAL # 58 (Vol # 6) Dated 25 Sept 2012

DEIVATHIN KURAL # 58 (Vol # 6) Dated 25 Sept 2012

(These e-mails are translations of talks given by PeriyavaaL of Kanchi Kaamakoti Peetam, over a period of some 60 years while he was the pontiff in the earlier part of the last century. These have been published by Vanadi Padippagam, Chennai, in seven volumes of a thousand pages each as Deivathin Kural. Today we are going ahead from page No 408 of Volume 6 of the Tamil original. The readers may note that herein ‘man/he’ includes ‘woman/she’ too mostly. These e-mails are all available at http://Advaitham.blogspot.com updated constantly)

260.  The word ‘Mumukshu’ means ‘Moksha Kaankshi’, meaning a person who is desirous of Moksham.  When that desire is fulfilled in a person and he has realized the Self or when he has had Aatma Saakshaatkaaram, he is a ‘Muktan’.  You have to be a Mumukshu before becoming a Muktan.  Everybody will have the desire to get out of the troubles of this worldly life and wish for release.  But such light- hearted desires cannot be thought of as ‘आकाङ्ग्क्षा’.  Intense desire with insatiable thirst for release and preparedness to try one’s level best; will all have to be there for a desire to be considered as an Aakaangksha  – आकाङ्ग्क्षा.  The nearest in meaning is the word ‘obsession’ mostly with a negative connotation.  This quality of fixation, his balanced attitude and all that he has to do – all of them put together is ‘Mumukshutvam’!  “संसार बन्ध निर्मुक्ति: कथं स्यान्मे दयानिधे | इति या सुदृढा भुद्दिर्वक्तव्या सा मुमुक्षुता ||”  When you have an intense feeling of, “Oh God! When will I get release from this sense of being bound by this worldly life?”  This feeling is what is known as ‘मुमुक्षुता’.  This is the Sloka 9 in Aparoksha Anubhuti. 
261.  With Easwara or the Guru in front as a representative of God, as though someone is crying with tearful eyes, calling him ‘दयानिधे’ (“Dayanidhe!)”, He is pleading, “When will I get out of the clutches of this worldly life “, having such a strong obsession with firm conviction is what is needed. He is asking with a strong mind that he may be released.  But, being motivated by poverty or loss, enmity or lack of health cannot be called सुदृढा भुद्दि!  This man may otherwise be having an acceptably comfortable life.  But, he is convinced that “Even this is only part of the mirage of Maya.  I have to get out of the clutches of this Maya and know the true Aatma.  I strongly believe that I have to get out of delusion and wake up to the reality of existence!”  That is सुदृढा भुद्दि.  Instead of coming to this conclusion due to being disappointed, he has deeply analysed and identified that all the seeming comforts of life are still part of the delusion.  So this fever and urge to get out is strongly felt by a Saadhak with a very clear mind that is, mentioned in female gender ‘या वक्तव्या सा मुमुक्षुता’.  So, the Sloka means that, “When one is praying to his Guru, (who is a wealth of kindness); with a firm mind, keen on release; that urge in him is Mumukshuta”.  This last word is in feminine gender!
262.   In Viveka ChudamaNi (in Sloka No. 27 and 28) while defining Mumukshutvam, our AachaaryaaL says in the first Sloka (No. 27), “अहन्कारादिदेहान्तान् बन्धानज्ञानकल्पितान | स्वस्वरूपावबोधेन मोक्तुमिच्छा मुमुक्षुता ||” meaning that, ‘Mumukshuta is the impatient and burning desire for being released, by realising the Real Nature of One’s Self, from all bondages of egoism to the body etc., which are created by ignorance.’  It is not enough if we are to be simply released from the ties of, this worldly existence.  It is just not enough if one were to become something like an insentient cadaver!  We need the स्वस्वरूपावभोधं, that is, we have to wake up to awareness of our eternal reality of the Aatma.  That is important.  For that we should be avidly aspiring for.  More than erasure of Maya, Realization of Reality with the Truth becoming a practically experienced reality is essential.  We pray for the removal of Maya for the arrival of Realization, though they are synchronous!  In the second Sloka (No.28), our AachaaryaaL says, “मन्दमध्यमरूपापि वैराग्येण शमादिना | प्रसादेन गुरो: सेयं प्रवृद्धासूयते फलं ||”, meaning, ‘Half-hearted and mediocre aspirations in a seeker may also come to bear fruit, being increased in effectiveness by the Grace of the Guru and by means of renunciation, calmness etc.

Why is the End Stage Known as Release or Freedom only?

263.  The end stage has been named ‘Moksham’ or ‘Mukti’.  From this we can see that, more than the true state of Aatma Saakshaatkaara that is the final stage of what we become; release or freedom from ties that is present now in the existing stage; seems to have been given greater importance! That word does not talk about the end state of our being.  That is what is called liberation or in Tamil ‘வீடு’ which is misunderstood as the Destination, is also about Liberation from the existing and not the end stage.   There is a root word ion Sanskrit as ‘मुच’ which means ‘release’ from which this word ‘मुक्ति’, ‘मोचनं’ and ‘विमोचनम् are derived.  Though not much in use, ‘Muku’ is a pronoun from which is derived ‘Mukundan’ who gives Mukti.  Thus, all these words are about ‘release from being bound’ and not about what is our final becoming!  None of these words are talking about the stage of ‘ब्रह्म ज्ञानं’ or ‘आत्म ज्ञानं’ or ‘अद्वैत अनुभूति’ at all!  Why is the end stage of ‘Adwaita Anubhuti’ – of becoming the Brhmam itself – is not being talked about at all and only some release from the present stage – is being mentioned?
264.  I can think of two reasons for why it is so.  One is that, the final state of our being after Mukti, that stage of Aatma Gnaanam and blissfulness is just not describable by words!  This is one reason.  Now let me tell you about the second reason.  Every religion has one very important scripture as a book of authority for the principle viewpoints aka Siddhaanta-s.  Such a book in our religion is “Brhma Sutra”.  In the very first Sutra or aphorism it talks about the subject-matter of the book and that is ‘ब्रह्म जिज्ञासा’.  The word जिज्ञासा means ‘the desire to know’.  Here the desire to know about Brhmam is the subject of the book as it is the aim or mission or object to be attained, for all followers of Sanaatana Dharma.  Only when you have the desire to know will we try to attain the object of our desires, isn’t it?  So first you have to have the जिज्ञासा.  So, what I wished to convey was that, in our religion as given in the most important Scripture Brhma Sutra, ‘to know Brhmam’ has been given as the mission or task of existence!  To know Brhmam is to be Brhmam, not as a subject knows the object; but to become that or get to know that we are already that!  All other previous knowledge is part of our Ignorance and delusion!  Point to note here is that, instead of talking about release from ignorance, the book is talking about Brhma Saakshaatkaara, ‘ब्रह्म ज्ञानं and ब्रह्म अनुभवं and ‘आत्म ज्ञानं’ or ‘अद्वैत अनुभूति’; which is all one and the same end stage of what we are, or going to be!
265.  Though the book of authority of Vedaanta Religion aka Sanaatana Dharma talks of the end state of every aspirant seeker thus, the question remains as to why do we keep talking about, Release, Moksham or Mukti has to have its reasons.  Earlier I gave you one reason for that, being the impossibility or inexpressibility of the end stage, when the seeker has become the sought and the goal!  Another valid reason occurs to me now.  It is an irrevocable fact that the ideas, opinions and concepts of this Sanaatana Dharma predate most of the religions of the world.  Then Buddhism, Patanjalam (that is Yoga Saastram), Nyaayam, Jyotisham and other view-points which could claim to be religions by their own rights came into being.   (Religions such as Islam, Christianity, Shintoism, Confucianism and any other-isms came into being as later day additions in the human society.  PeriyavaaL is not talking about them here.)  When there are people there will always be differences of opinions.  Within our own religion of followers of Vedas known as Sanaatana Dharma, there have been people with some differences of opinions.  Actually I will go to the extent of saying that there is no concept that has not been part of Indian ethos sometime or the other! 
266.  What were slight variations and differences came to be emphasised by some great thinker or Guru; it is then that their view- points came to be known as different religions.  In them except for basic Agnosticism of Lokayatha Religion, all others have emphasised the point of release from the binding ties of this worldly ‘Samsaara Saagara’, meaning the Ocean of This Worldly Life.  Lokayatam says, “There are no Gods and nothing as Aatma.  After death there is no life and so no question of lingering Karma.  Relax, make merry, enjoy, no rules and no regulations can apply“.   Let us leave aside the Lokayatam, as it cannot even be considered as a religion!   All other religions different to Vedaanta also do talk about release, Mukti and Moksha.  But do they talk about the end stage as oneness with the Brhmam?  The answer to that question is a big No!
267.  Buddhism talks about everything becoming a ‘Soonyata’ or Zeroness, calling it ‘NirvaaNa’.  Nyaayam as a religion and with it the Vaiseshikam, both talk about a state of all problems being resolved or दुःक निवृत्ति of ‘apavargam’ as the end stage.  They talk of resolving of all conflicts and sorrows but not about a state of bliss.  So that final stage as per those religions can be thought of as a state of ‘जड’ senseless dumbness.  Similarly Saankhya talks of ‘Kaivalyam’ as the end state in which one is relieved of the play of Prakruti aka Maya, without any positive state of blissfulness.  In Patanjala Yoga too, in the very first Sutra, instead of talking positively about the aim as Brhma Saakshaatkaara, it only talks negatively about restraining and controlling the flow of Chittam!  The influence of Maya and the binding ties of Samsara occur due to the flow of thoughts of the mind only isn’t it?  So, that religion also talks about becoming an inert piece of dead wood, it seems.  The seeds for all these religions have always been there in our ethos from time immemorial.  So possibly, our Vedaanta also picked up the common point of ‘release from ties’ – of ‘Bandha Moksham’ – as the aim.  This seems to be another valid reason (to the one I told you in Para 265 above, about the end stage being indescribable), for not talking about the end stage in Vedaantam. 
268.  When you proceed on the path of Vedaanta and get to that Moksham, it has to be Brhma Saakshaatkaaram only!  There one is not suddenly going to come face to face with some new thing known as Brhmam.  He is not going to attain to or reach some new state of happiness of Sat-Chit-Aananda.  He is always that only!  Still he was under the delusion of Maya – which as we have seen before – hides the reality and apparently displays the unreal.  Thus he was ignorant of his own reality under the compulsions of Maya.  Having done all that he was required to do as Saadhana, the ties which were binding him are cut.  He is released from the clutches of Maya and attains Moksha.  At once automatically he recognises his real state being none else but the very Parabrhmam.  There is no becoming or creation or reaching.  He can do nothing about the Brhmam.  It cannot be created or destroyed.  It is already ‘स्वयम् सिद्धं’ ever present beyond the confines of space and time and you realize that you are already that and that is “तत् + त्वं + असि = तत्त्वमसि” – That You Are!  From this point of view, what happens by our effort is to break through Maya and so it is correct to think of Moksham as the aim of our Saadhana!  (Now we are in the right frame of mind and understanding that we can go on to the definition of Mumukshu as given by our AachaaryaaL, in the next e-mail.)




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