Monday, July 08, 2013

DEIVATHIN KURAL # 07 (Vol # 7) Dated 07 July 2013

DEIVATHIN KURAL # 07 (Vol # 7) Dated 07 July 2013

(These e-mails are translations of talks given by PeriyavãL of Kanchi Kaamakoti Peetam, over a period of some 60 years while he was the pontiff in the earlier part of the last century. These have been published by Vanadi Padippagam, Chennai, in seven volumes of a thousand pages each as Deivathin Kural. Today we are going ahead from page No 44 of Volume 7 of the Tamil original. The readers may note that herein ‘man/he’ includes ‘woman/she’ too mostly. These e-mails are all available at updated continually)

62.           Now, the word 'Prãkrutam' mentioned in the previous paragraph is nothing but the spoken Sanskrit as a colloquial that was widely prevalent all over India! There was complete acceptability between the languages within the land mass of what is India.  When it came to matters spiritual, Sanskrit was very much available and for all other purposes one's mother tongue would do most sufficiently, thank you!  Even in matters spiritual, various shades of devotion were very much common knowledge and easily expressible in any of the languages.  That being the general ambience all over the country let us look at the relationship between Tamil and Sanskrit in Tamil Nadu.  For words such as Ãtma, Yoga, Japa, Tapasya, Mantra, Tantra, Ãgama, PurãNa, and many such Sanskrit words there are no Tamil words.  'Tavam' in Tamil is a derivative from Tapasya only.  Or the words are used as it is written in Tamil or with a slight intonation such as; ஆத்மா, யோகா, ஜபம், தவம், மந்திரம், தந்திரம், ஆகமம், புராணம், இதிஹாசம் and such; for which there are no separate Tamil words!  The reason was an attitude of familiarity and the lack of necessity!  Without any reservation or feeling of deficiency, their approach was one of, "When at the basic level of the roots, Tamil and Sanskrit are one, what can be the objection to using words from each other?  They are also ours, isn't it?"  They felt so without any hesitation and accordingly used at will, Sanskrit words in Tamil.

63.          What they did was to slightly modify and change may be the intonation or ending as per the 'genius of the language' and used the Sanskrit words without feeling the necessity to coin a new word with that meaning and added that word quite liberally to their vocabulary.  For example the word 'लक्ष्य' in Sanskrit, pronounced as 'lakshya'; became 'ilatchiyam' aka 'இலட்சியம்' and classic literature became 'ilakkiyam' – 'இலக்கியம்' in TamilI heard something rather funny and at the same time slightly hurting.  Some political bigwig got very annoyed when someone wrote the word in Tamil as 'Vignãpanam' – 'விஞ்ஞாபனம்' – for the English word 'Appeal'.  He virtually gave him a lashing by the tongue and told him to change the word to 'viNNappam' – 'விண்ணப்பம்'!  But the point to note is that like the change from 'மனிதாபிமானம்' to 'மனித நேயம்', which I mentioned sometime back, this word '' is not really a separate Tamil word but available as 'viNNãpaNam' – 'விண்ணாபணம்' in Prãkrutam! (Please understand that Prãkrutam was not written but only spoken / pronounced like that!  Here the political bigwig is ticking off someone, for writing in Tamil a Sanskrit word and is asking him to change it to what is given in the 'spoken Sanskrit' that is Prãkrutam!)  The word Science in English is mentioned in Tamil as 'Vignãnam – விஞ்ஞானம்'.  Since that word sounds and looks like 'ஞானம்' – 'gnãnam' a Sanskrit word, they wish to change it to 'ViNNãNam' – 'விண்ணாணம்'; which is nothing else but the same 'விஞ்ஞானம்' in the Prãkrutam!  You get the point?  The point I am making is that, the 'Genius of the Language' of Tamil, Sanskrit and Prãkrutam are and have been so close to each other like the nail and the flesh under it!

64.          However much we may try, we cannot pull out those roots!  One gentleman was commenting on a virulent statement by a 'hard-core-Tamil-Only' speaker, who had said, 'vada mozhi savappettiyil aaNi araivom' – 'வடமொழி சவப்பெட்டியில் ஆணி அறைவோம்', thereby meaning that, they will put nails in  the coffin of the North-Indian-Language (meaning the Sanskrit)!  This commentator was saying, "There are three Sanskrit words in this statement by the speaker who wishes to do away with Sanskrit namely, 'Savam', 'Petti' and 'AaNi'.  There are other alternative words for 'Savam' meaning the 'dead body' like 'PiNam' – 'பிணம்' and 'Petti' meaning a box; in Tamil.  But this speaker has used not pure Tamil words but, words derived from Sanskrit, as given in the spoken colloquial   Prãkrutam only!  Then for the third word 'ãNi' – 'ஆணி'; there is no Tamil word at all, other than being used as it is!  Like this word 'ஆணி' there are many words which are in common usage such as a 'karumãn' – 'கருமான்' for a black-smith and a 'tachchan' – 'தச்சன்' for a carpenter are in fact 'karumãran' and 'dakshan' respectively which are pure Sanskrit words as 'कर्माकर' and 'दक्षन', that occur in रुद्रं portion of Vedas themselves!   

65.          On the one hand Tamil did grow quite healthily with a great vocabulary of its own over many centuries or even thousands of years.  But instead of creating new words artificially, the Sanskrit words that are like second nature to our way of life, that is, inextricably inter-twined like roots of adjacent plants were adopted as it is by our fore-fathers quite naturally.  Now what is being done is that there is a massive effort on, to separate these roots as though by such resolution suddenly the two plants will get some boost in their growth! What is likely to happen is that both plants are likely to become rootless and stunted!  At least, that is what is happening to Tamil, by the well-meaning majority being roped in by some, by their power of attraction and influence. Calling themselves as 'root-level-workers' they are playing havoc at the root-level!  In the name of 'Tamizh Marabu' – 'தமிழ் மரபு', they are doing things against the traditions of the past Masters!  There is no meaning in getting annoyed or angry. We should peacefully put it across and make them understand.  We should pray to 'Vãk Devi' Saraswathi to grant us good sense.  Veda Vyãsa wrote the Maha Bhãratham not only to mean a great epic novel but also as a great name of this great Indian Sub-continent as one nation of one people of different traditions, customs and languages – different but not divergent!  The Vigneshwara PiLLaiyar who wrote Maha Bhãratham and 'முத்தமிழ்' on the Meru Mountain may be pleased to sanction so that we may not be fighting on the basis of Tamil and Sanskrit languages which are like the two eyes ours!  Let us pray to him so that, he may kindly grant us the sense to understand ourselves to be children of the same Parvathy – Parameswara, the divine  couple, as siblings of PiLLaiyar and not fight on the basis of cast, creed and language!

Sanction of 'AruL' to Two Originators of Thevãram Songs
66.          I started a discussion as an example about 'Mudal Amaichchar' and got side tracked into a discussion about purifying Tamil and anti-Sanskrit movement.  If there are drought conditions existing in a state say, and people make a representation and put up a petition to the Chief Minister and if he creates a fund and starts a collection drive, does he distribute the money himself?  He does it by deputing a special officer, isn't it?  Like that in Thiru Veezhi Mizhalai, when there was utter drought conditions, Appar and Sundarar submitted the petitions on behalf of the general public and when Swami Siva sanctioned gold coins, the Special Officer detailed for distribution of funds was PiLLaiyar known as 'Padikkãsu PiLLaiyar', the title surviving till date!

67.          There is one other example.  Near Lalgudi there is a place known as Anbil.  This place is mentioned as 'Anbil Ãlandurai' in the Thevãram songs. Appar and Sambandar were proceeding to that place.  On the way was this place KoLLidam where the River Cauvery was in flood!  So, they both prayed to Lord Siva, standing on the banks of the river.  Now again PiLLaiyar comes in to play.  Over the sounds of the flooded river, he carefully bent his head and gave attention to the sounds of their singing and pleading for their not being able to cross the river in spate!  He quickly conveyed the message to Siva Perumãn, that there seem to be two great devotees of Siva, wishing to come across the river in spate!  Today if you visit this place 'Anbil Ãlandurai', you can visit this temple of this PiLLaiyar, who relayed and recommended the case of these two devotees.  Since he bent his head to hear their request, here he is known as the 'sevi sãiththa Vinãyakar' – 'செவி சாய்த்த விநாயகர்', demonstrating as to how he paid attention to their pleas from across the river!

Vinãyagar in Thevãram – தேவாரத்தில் விநாயகர்
68.          In Thevãram there are two places especially well-known where there is a mention of PiLLaiyar.  One is the voice of Appar and the other is of Sambandar.  Of course Sundarar also has mentioned Ganapathy in his songs.  There was this Pallava King who had converted to Jainism.  He treated Appar very cruelly because Appar had first converted to Jainism and then went back to his Saivam.  He tried all sorts of tricks to force Appar to accept defeat.  He tied him to a rock and dropped him in deep sea and the huge rock floated on water!  He arranged for Appar to be put in a cauldron ('suNNambu' – 'சுண்ணாம்புக் காளவாய்') in which slaked lime is prepared from heated dry sea shells when soaked with water.  Appar came out unscathed!  The King is also said to have given him poison and ordered an elephant in mast to be made to walk over Appar!  Appar just literally stood his ground saying, 'anjuvadu yadonrum illai, anja varuvadum illai' – 'அஞ்சுவது யாதொன்றும் இல்லை, அஞ்ச வருவதும் இல்லை' meaning "I do not know as to how to be afraid of what?"  In that Padigam starting with 'Vezham uritta nilai' he says,
'பல பல காமத்தர் ஆகி பதைத்து எழுவார் மனத்துள்ளே
'pala pala kaamattaraagi padaittezhuvaar manaththuLLe
கலமலக்கிட்டு திரியும் கணபதி என்னும் களிறு
kalamalakkittu thiriyum ganapathi ennung kaLiru'.

69.          This elephant belongs to Easwara and so are we his people only!  So we do not bother about such elephant sent by the king or fear about any other threat!  The elephant did a Pradakshinam of Appar and started chasing the handler who ran for his life!  What he says in this poem about this 'elephant known as Ganapathy' is as follows.  "We people have thousands of desires that, the moment one is satisfied, we are at once aspiring and perspiring for the next desire in line!  So we have a ceaselessly thirsting nature.  Normally it is said that Vigneshwara removes the hurdles in our attainment of what we are aspiring for!"  Appar SwamigaL does not say that, but goes much higher in understanding and comprehension, saying "I do not know as to what experts are likely to say.  I am going to only say what I understand and that is, there is no end to satisfying desires.  Like we can never put off a fire by feeding it, desire is never sated by removing the hurdles and enabling us to get what we desired for!  In fact that is likely to further reinforce our ties of 'Samsara Bandham'!"  In his understanding and experience, Appar says, "This PiLLaiyar is 'roaming about our minds in total abandon, putting our-selves and our ideas in a spin' – ' kalamalakkittu thiriyum ganapathi ennung kaLiru'!   In our minds that are already turbid and confused, he is applying centrifugal, revolutionary and counter-revolutionary forces, (in simple Tamil word it is – total கலக்கல்)!"  That is likely to bring about a peace and equilibrium!  This 'KaLiru' – 'களிறு' is a male elephant.  It is not much affected by these eddies and whirl-pools!  So what Appar says is that, this male elephant will enter the confused minds of the devotees and make a majestic march in the counter direction against all confusion and bring calmness and peace!

(To be continued.)




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