Saturday, January 05, 2013

DEIVATHIN KURAL # 109 (Vol # 6) Dated 05 Jan 2013

DEIVATHIN KURAL # 109 (Vol # 6) Dated 05 Jan 2013

(These e-mails are translations of talks given by PeriyavaaL of Kanchi Kaamakoti Peetam, over a period of some 60 years while he was the pontiff in the earlier part of the last century. These have been published by Vanadi Padippagam, Chennai, in seven volumes of a thousand pages each as Deivathin Kural. Today we are going ahead from the middle of page No 742 of Volume 6 of the Tamil original. The readers may note that herein ‘man/he’ includes ‘woman/she’ too mostly. These e-mails are all available at updated consonantly)

254.  The traditions of Saiva Siddhãntam, Kashmira Saivam, Visishtãdwaitam and Dwaitam became fully formed in to clearly identifiable as separate Religious Traditions only after our ÃchãryãL's time.  Their main father / founder / advocates have clearly propounded their theories, targeting Adwaitam.  The essence of those differing theories, were not newly propounded but were part of the ethos of what is Sanãtana Dharma from its timeless past!   Adwaitam was also not a discovery by our ÃchãryãL.  But he was the one to clearly enunciate the theory, define the parameters and establish the same as a clearly defined religious point of view.  Similarly those who are thought to be Father / Founders of those differing Siddhãntam-s too were not the originators.  So, our ÃchãryãL as an omniscient Sarvagna had a clear idea of other view points and principles which are reflected in various places in Soundarya Lahari.

255.  When the water from the higher mountains hits the plains, especially after the rains, the flood brooks no borders and the flow of water brakes the banks.  It is the height of this attitude that we see in the first sloka, appreciating the fact of 'spandanam' in the Brhmam and then by the seventh sloka, the one who was responsible for causing that 'spandanam' is praised to the heavens as 'Oho! Purushika!'  The truest truth is the state of total inactivity of Sivam as a piece of dead wood, earning the name of 'SthaNu' as static as only static can be!  It is the power of Maya that depicts static Sivam as the dynamic universe.  In Adwaitam, nowhere is it mentioned that Maya from within the Sivam causes it to do 'spandanam'!  Neither is it mentioned anywhere in Adwaitam that Maya from outside moves the Sivam to create the duality of the universe and world!  The Adwaita Brhmam does not move and cannot be moved.  It just remains as it is forever, but based on its being there as a foundation the Maya projects an image of appearance for the world to be seen, like cinema on the screen, which does not undergo any change.  In Adwaitam Maya is the butt for every joke!  Even the indwelling spirit in each one of us is the same Brhmam / Sivam in every iota of existence.  But that fact is hidden from our cognition and we are led to believe ourselves to be this perishable body and mind and we are kicked around like a football from pillar to post, due to Maya.  So, it is roundly criticised, naturally!

256.  There what is roundly criticised in Adwaitam, is praised high heavens as Shakti without Maya as the adjective even!  Since Siva's 'அசைவு' it is, which in the end is the cause of creation itself, this Shakti must be the same as Maya in Adwaitam, isn't it?  Still it is praised and worshipped here by our same ÃchãryãL.  In Adwaitam the NirguNa Brhmam and Easwara as the SaguNa Brhmam are not directly connected.  Because, NirguNa Brhmam can only be by itself and it cannot be related or connected to anything else.  The very name of NirguNa Brhmam, suggests that it does not react or respond with anybody or anything.  Nobody can cause it to react or respond either.  As a miracle unexplainable by anybody as to how it happens, that NirguNa Brhmam is depicted by Maya as the world of duality and multiplicity.  The word used to explain this quality of Maya as to how it does this 'image projection' is 'anir vachaneeyam' which simply means 'inexplicable'!  The dim light of the evening is said to cause the rope to seem like a snake.  But has the rope undergone any change really?  No!  Is there any relation or connection between the rope and the snake?  The change or connection if any is only in our minds, isn't it?  Similarly there is no change in the NirguNa Brhmam.  But Maya causes the seeming impression in our minds to make it appear as the dual world.

257.  But here in Sãktam, being followed by our ÃchãryãL, there is no entity as Maya unrelated to the Brhmam.  In Adwaitam there is no Shakti of Brhmam or Brhma-Shakti given much importance.  Here in Sãktam that Brhma-Shakti is the most important – Parãsakti that is AmbãL.  Her one aspect is the job of Maya.  Then she is herself the exact opposite of Maya as the Chit-Shakti.  Then she is also the Ichcha Shakti and Kriya Shakti and everything!  For the Sivam which is in the position of NirguNa Brhmam, she is one, inalienably one with the Sivam, ever inseparable.  The oneness of Siva and Shakti – 'शिव शक्तैक्य रूपिणी' – the last but one Nãma in Lalitha Sahasranãma – is very important here.  'Aikyam' does not mean some joint but oneness.  The word 'ekam' or 'एकं' means one isn't it?  Such oneness is 'aikyam'.  At the end of the thousand names of Lalitha, having called her the Sivã, it is the next name 'शिव शक्तैक्य रूपिणी' – meaning 'of the form of oneness of 'Siva and Shakti'. 

258.  As this Siva is almost but not exactly the Adwaita NirguNa Brhmam, connecting and relating to him and by moving him only, she as the wife and they as the couple, carry out the creation, sustenance and other such activities.  If there is power, there has to be a basis for it to exist, isn't it?  For 10 Kilo Grams weight, there has to be something, at the least a piece of iron of that weight, isn't it?  How can there be weight or power without some basis of it?  If there is a power as colour or fragrance, it has to be based in a flower, isn't it?  Similarly, for all powers the basis is Parãsakti and Siva is the inseparable basis for her.  When that Siva's energy is this Shakti, how can we separate them?  If you say, 'Remove the whiteness from the Milk or remove its taste from it', how can it be done?  So whatever is done by the effect of Shakti, Siva is also there.  If a medicine is bitter, to reduce that effect can you separate milk's sweetness alone and add it to the medicine?  You cannot.  Similarly in all jobs of Shakti, you cannot do without Siva there. 

259.  In Moksha Anugraha that Shakti imparts to the Jiva, he is expected to attain the peacefulness of NirguNa Adwaita status as indicated by the Sãkta doctrines.  Still they are said to be a pair of oneness of peace and power, in all those doctrines.  That power revelling at its own illimitable variety, reach and range is enlarged and expanded as the universe.  The whole of creation thus is for the playful satisfaction of the basic stuff of power.  To say that 'The creation is for the pleasure and satisfaction of the basic stuff of power – 'மூலப்பொருள்', itself will not be a very correct statement!  That would mean that she is unhappy when not creating and playing about with the universe!  We cannot make such a stupid statement about 'Satchitãnanda RoopiNi' – 'सत्चिदानन्द रूपिणी'!  So, instead of saying that she does it for happiness, it is better to say that, 'She does all that Leela in her natural state of happiness'! 

"அத்வைத மாயையும், சைவ சாக்தங்களின் சக்திகளும்"
Maya in Adwaitam & Shakti in Saiva – Sãkta Doctrines

260.  In the Sãkta Sãstra's 'Srushti Krama' too there is a mention of Maya.  In this order of Srushti Krama, Saiva and Sãkta doctrines are generally in agreement.  But they are not in accord with what is given in Adwaitam as, there being a Brhmam and Maya; by Maya the Brhmam is not seen or hidden and in the basis of Brhmam, in its place the creation exists or seen to be existing.  Starting from Sivam with Shakti as part and parcel of it as the Siva-Brhmam, Sãktam talks about five 'Suddha Tatvams' (or Clean Principles) and then the Maya Tatvam comes as the sixth.  Kashmira Saivam is also quite similar.  In them starting from Maya there are 31 'Asuddha Tatvams' (or 'unclean Principles').  In Saiva Siddhãntam that is popular in Tamil Nadu, all the 36 principles are related to Maya and the first five are known as 'Suddha Maya' and the other 31 as 'Asuddha Maya' principles.  Let us simply look at Sãkta doctrine only.

261.  In it the first Tatvam or principle is the Siva Tatvam that has the Chit / Gnãna Shakti within, without any action.  Then the second is the fully expressed Shakti Tatvam.  Third is the Sadasiva Tatvam with Ichcha Shakti.  Fourth is the Easwara Tatvam with Gnãna Shakti.  Fifth is Suddha Vidya Tatvam with Kriya Shakti.  Then sixth is the Maya.  I said that the first Tatvam Sivam is with Chit Shakti.  Some time back I had told you that Chit Shakti is Gnãna Shakti.  Then again the fourth Easwara Tatvam is with Gnãna Shakti, I said.  What I said as the second principle is also this Chit Shakti.  How to understand if say so many things seemingly repetitive or contradictory?  If such is your question, let me tell you once again clearly!

262.  Siva as the 'Sat' as the main being with inhering Chit Shakti; is the first principle.  Chit Shakti as the main being with the Sat Tatvam as its background is the second principle.  This Chit Shakti is not only Gnãnam or 'அறிவு' or just knowledge.  This is an active and lively or living experience of awareness. You might have heard of two opposite words as 'Jada' / 'जड' and 'Chetan' / 'चेतन'.  This word Chetan is from the root word Chit.  All the inanimate things without life, awareness, feelings and sense; such as stones, metals and other materials are all Jada or Achetan.  As against this are the lively, aware beings such as birds, animals and human beings are all with this quality of 'Chaitanyam'.  AmbãL is called as 'Chaitanya SwaroopiNi', meaning the very form of the quality of Gnãnam, அறிவு and awareness.  She is the very life of the main basic stuff of 'the 'மூலப்பொருள்' or root-material'!  So, she is also the 'प्राण शक्ति' of the Sivam as part of that are the qualities of liveliness, sense, feelings, Gnãnam and vivaciousness.  It is one thing to know that sugar or honey is sweet.  It is another to experience that sweetness by tasting it isn't it so?  This knowledge thus becomes a living experience.  Hence, Shakti means the Chit Shakti, the Brhmam's alive, self-experience of being aware. 

263.  Thus Gnãnam is not only knowledge but a living experience of awareness which is beautifully expressed as consciousness in English.  When we are conscious there is a Swa-Anubhava in it, which can only happen when you are alive!  Siva is the first Tatvam.  Shakti- that is Chit Shakti is the second.  If you ask as to why is it the second, the answer is like this.  Say there is a powerful sportsman who is a wrestler or boxer.  He has power even while sleeping.  But only when his awake his power is evident.  The Siva Tatvam is like the sleeping giant.  His power is not evident then.  The Shakti Tatvam is like the giant who is awake.  This wakeful giant wishes to display his prowess.  That is his Ichcha.  This is the third principle of Sadasiva with Ichcha Shakti!  Fourth is the Easwara with the power of Gnãna!  Is there confusion again? 

(To be continued.)




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