Monday, December 24, 2012

DEIVATHIN KURAL # 103 (Vol # 6) Dated 24 Dec 2012

DEIVATHIN KURAL # 103 (Vol # 6) Dated 24 Dec 2012

(These e-mails are translations of talks given by PeriyavaaL of Kanchi Kaamakoti Peetam, over a period of some 60 years while he was the pontiff in the earlier part of the last century. These have been published by Vanadi Padippagam, Chennai, in seven volumes of a thousand pages each as Deivathin Kural. Today we are going ahead from the middle of the page No 701 of Volume 6 of the Tamil original. The readers may note that herein ‘man/he’ includes ‘woman/she’ too mostly. These e-mails are all available at updated consonantly)

192.  There is such closeness between AmbãL and Vishnu that if she is Bala Tripurasundari, he is Balaji!  When normally the name of the males when added with an 'I' becomes that of females such as; Deva – Devi, Sahodara – Sahodari, Putra – Putri and say Sankara and Sankari!  But Hara is the name for Siva and Hari is the name for Vishnu and not that of AmbãL!  So, what we notice is that names of males end in 'A-kãrãrãnta' and names of females end in 'I- kãrãrãnta'.  This is so even amongst the westerners as their women normally have names such as, Lucy, Anni, Juli, Mary and so on.  In our country itself, though in one language the names of males finish in 'n' such as Narayanan, Sankaran and so on, in another they are Shankar, Narayan ending abruptly and in another they become Sankrudu, Narayanudu and Devudu!  Still in all languages almost all the female names are ending in 'I'- kãrãrãnta Stri Ling (इ कारान्त स्त्री लिङ्ग) mainly as, Kãmãkshi, Meenãkshi and so on!

193.  Sankara becomes Sankari and Easwara becomes Easwari.  But for Rudra, we should be saying RudrãNi and Siva becomes Sivãni; Sarva to SarvãNi, Bhava to Bhavãni; Indra to IndrãNi and Brhma to BrhmãNi; thus most female names end in 'I' only.  Siva becomes Sivã or Sivãni; similarly you can have Rama (राम) will become (रामा) and Krishna (कृष्ण) will become Krishnã (कृष्णा) – that is 'a-kãrãnta' name of a male when the gender is changed becomes either 'i-kãrãnta' Stri-ling or 'Ã-kãrãnta' Stri-lingLike names finishing in 'i' or 'ee', there are many ending in 'ã' – such as Umã, Ramã, Durgã, Bãlã, Lalitã and Saradã. 

194.  'Amaram' or 'Amara Kosam' is the Dictionary/Encyclopaedia in Sanskrit.  In it there is a whole list of names for AmbãL.  They will be seen to be ending in 'ã –' or 'è or I – ', such as, Umã (उमा), Kãtyãyanè (कात्यायनी), Gowri (गौरी ), KaLi (काली), Haimavati (हैमवती), Easwari (ईस्वरी), Sivã (सिवा), Bhavani (भवानी), RudrãNi (रुद्राणी), SarvãNi (सर्वाणि), SarvamangaLa (सर्वमङ्गला), AparNa (अपर्णा), Parvati (पार्वती), Durga (दुर्गा), Mrudãni (मृडानी), ChaNdika (चण्डिका), Ambika (अम्बिका), Ãryã (आर्या), DãkshãyaNi (दाक्षायणि), cha eva Girija (चैव गिरिजा), Menakãtmaja (मेनकात्मजा), Karmamoti (कर्ममोती), Tu Chãmunda (तु चामुण्डा), Charma Munda (चर्म मुण्डा), tu Charchika (तु चर्चिका ).  Here 'tu' and 'cha eva' are not names but mean 'and or also'!   

195.  If you look up the names of Lakshmi also, it is ending in 'ã' or 'è' – Lakshmi (लक्ष्मी), Padmãlayã (पद्मालया), Padmã (पद्मा), Kamalã (कमला), Sri (श्री), Haripriyã (हरिप्रिया), Indirã (इन्दिरा), Lokamãtã (लोकमाता), Mã (मा), Kshiroda – tanayã (क्षिरोदतनया), Ramã (रमा), Bhargavi (भार्गवी), Lokajanani (लोकजननि), Kshira-sãgara-kanyakã (क्षिरसागरकन्यका).  Similarly the names of Sarswathi are, Brãhmi (ब्राह्मी), tu Bhãrathi (तु भारति), Bhãshã (भाषा), Ghèer (घीर), Vãk (वाक्), and VãNi (वाणी).  These last but two names ending in consonants are a rarity.

196.  In Tamil also to indicate the feminine gender we add an 'I' or 'è' to the name of the male, such as, Arasan (அரசன்) to Arasi (அரசி); ANNan (அண்ணன்) to ANNi (அண்ணி), Iraivan (இறைவன்) to Iraivi (இறைவி).  But in Tamil women's names do not end in 'aa' that is 'ã'.  What finishes in 'aa' in Sanskrit, even that we make it in to an 'ai' or 'ay', like Sita (சீதா), in to Seetai (சீதை) and Lalita (லலிதா) in to Lalitai (லலிதை). There is no word in Sanskrit which finishes in 'ai' or '', though in mantra Sãstrã when AmbãL is being referred as the Goddess of Speech (Vaak Devi), this letter '' is used. This ending in 'ã' (aka 'ãkãram') is exclusively meant for women only.  (Saying this PeriyavãL smiles as there is a pun on this word 'ãkãram' which has double meaning of ending in 'a' and also 'food'!)

197.  In other countries too there are names such as Diana, Juliana, Fatima and Laila.  Of course if you take names from other countries the names do end in every which way!  But even then, when it comes to converting a male name in to feminine name, this ending in 'ã' does come in to play such as, Alexander to Alexandra, and Victor to Victoria.  If we do not have names of males ending in 'a or ã' amongst westerners also there is rarely a Joshua or a Jeremiah. Not only women's names but some men's names also finish in 'I or è', such as GaNapati, Hari, Murthy.  But there are rarely any male names in Indian languages ending in 'ã'.  If you look at the 'शब्द कोश' (a book of grammar to show as to how the names undergo variations with the change in number and when added with 'to, by, for' and such declensions and conjugations), you will see that amongst male representative names, after Rama (राम) it is Hari (हरि), with no male name ending in 'ã'.  Amongst feminine names none finishes in 'a', the very first sample name of women being 'Ramã' (रमा), ending in 'ã'.  Next is Mati ending in 'i' and then Gowrè  or Gowri pronounced as 'Gowree'. 

198.  What we normally write with a short ending 'kuril'(குறில்) as Lakshmi, Saraswathi or Parvathy in Tamil, in Sanskrit end in the longer version 'nedil'(நெடில்) as लक्ष्मी, सरस्वती व पार्वती! I have been talking to you without giving attention to this difference between the short 'e' and the longer 'è'.  Amongst the names for males even lesser than the names ending in 'e', there are very few ending in 'è', such as, Senãnee (सेनानी) meaning a soldier or commander, GrãmaNee (ग्रामणी) meaning village administrator and Sudhee (सुधी) meaning a well knowledgeable person.
199.  You may wonder as to how, when many of the names in Vishnu Sahasra Nãmã end in 'ã' of the longer version, this Swami is saying that there are no names of males ending in 'ã'?  For example names such as Brhmã, Dhãtã, Keshihã, Darpahã, Tvashtã and Ãtmã; are all finishing in 'ã'!  But, all these names in their root form, finish in 'n' than 'a' or 'ru'.  Father is called Pita (पिता) and it is derived from the root word 'Pitru' (पितृ).  Sarma, Verma and Gupta are actually names of castes of Brahmin, Kshatriya and Vaisya and are derived from Sarman, Verman and Gupta of the shorter 'a' and not 'ã' that is गुप्त and not गुप्ता.  'Saka' meaning a friend with the shorter ending is for example is from 'Saki' or 'सकी' the feminine version!  As I said earlier, there are no names of the feminine gender ending in 'a' and no male names ending in the longer version 'ã'.  It is men who are normally taller in comparison with women.  But names of males end in the shorter version ending and it is the females whose names end in the longer version 'ã'.  So, you can see that it is the women who have been placed in a higher pedestal as though!  The shorter and longer version of 'I' & 'e' are both to be found in the ending of the names for women folk.
200.  Shakti itself finishes in ''. Devi and Easwari end in ''. Ambã  and Ambikã end in 'ã' that is, ''. Though the 'ã' ending is the exclusive one for female names, the '' and '' endings are said to be the very form of Shakti Swaroopa.  This matter is known to only people who are initiated and instructed in the Sãkta secrets.  Those who can keep this as secrets and entitled to learn are the only ones to be told about it that, I am not to share this in public.  However all you need to know is that, all Jeeva Chaitanyam, the light of Knowledge and the mobility with liveliness is given by this ''''-kãram only!  When we say Siva, in the first letter 'si' itself, AmbãL as ''''-kãram is inalienably attached to him.  In explaining this point, I had to make all this explanation for the past eleven paragraphs from the 190th, about ending of male and female names. 
201.  What will happen if this attachment is removed?  If you remove the 'I' from 'si' and Sivam will turn in to Savam.  This highly salubrious Parama Mangala Nãmã of Siva will become 'Sava' meaning a dead body in Tamil and 'one fourth' in Hindi  It is the 'உயிர் எழுத்து இ / ஈ', it is the Shakti Akshara that imparts life to Sivam itself!  As I am saying this I note one more point.  In Easwara also it is the that is adding the life to the name of ஈஸ்வரா also as the first Akshara in that word!  In Vedanta it is the '' sound that indicates the SaguNa Brhmam that is responsible for all the works of Creation, Sustenance and Re-absorption, starting from the Shakti Bija Akshara, the grain Akshara ''!
202.  Bijam means the seed.  As the seed contains the whole tree and all future manifestations of fruits and seeds; the Bija Akshara has all the potential contained in it.  We are seeing this fact that, 'without Shakti, that Sivam is only Savam', in the way the sounds of the letters have been given beautiful and meaningful names in the Tamil traditions of the language!  In the Siva-Shakti PraNava I said there is this vowel '', which is the Akshara for AmbãL and in Tamil this is called a 'உயிர் எழுத்து' the letter with the life-force.  As I said the consonant is the 'மெய் எழுத்து' and it means the 'body' letter!  It is the 'உயிர்' that imparts life to the body of 'மெய்' isn't it? So Siva is the body and AmbãL is the life in him.  What is the body without life in it?  We have seen that already that 'சிவம் = சவம்'!
203.  If Shakti is not there, Sivam is Savam' what does it mean?  Without the presence of the Madam, Mister has no power and totally sans action, qualities and immobile – in other words Nishkriya, NirguNa, Nirãkãra and inert! Even in the colloquial don't we say, "Please do this only if you have the power to do.  Otherwise just lie about as Siva" – "உனக்கு இத பண்ண சக்தி இருந்தா பண்ணு இல்லேன்னா சிவனேன்னு கிட" – 'unakku ida panra sakti irunda pannu illenna sivanennu kida!'  So it means that without her, the Shakti, he is inactive, even Siva!  Whosoever he may be, without the power nothing can be done.  It applies to even Siva!
204.  Brhmam on realization of its power, then only it could do the creation.  To cause it to become aware that is to know, that it has the power is also the job of the power isn't it?  This is what has been mentioned at the start of the sloka that, "Even Siva when with your power becomes capable of creating and running the whole universe.  Otherwise he is not wise enough to even move!"  Saying so, he adds a 'na kalu' to mean, 'isn't it so'?  "शिव शक्त्या युक्तो यदि भवति शक्त: प्रभवितुं न चेद एवम देवो न कलु कुशल: स्पन्दितुं अपि"  'स्पन्दितुं' – to just move 'अपि' - even 'कुशल:' capable – 'न कलु' – not be (able) isn't it?  Without Shakti Sivam has to remain dormant.  That is the meaning.
"இரு மார்க்கத்திற்கும் ஆச்சாரியார்"
For Both Bhakti and Gnaana Marga – ÃchãryãL
205.  "Jagat is a mirage.  All transactions of the world are part of Maya.  We should come to realise our oneness with the true NirguNa Brhmam."  With that intention our ÃchãryãL has written the Bhashyams to Brhma Sutra, ten Upanishads and Bhagawat Gita; and authored so many PrakaraNa Granthas and established the Adwaitam as an unassailable principle of Philosophy!  Whatever could be said against it, he has analysed them all and proved them all as wrong.  Here he is calling that power Maya as his Mother, "Can Siva, even move an inch without Your Power, Mother?  The entire universal coming and going, the input, processing and output is all your power only, isn't it Amma?"  Naturally you may be seized with the question as to how the same ÃchãryãL do this double talk.  So what is Satyam?  If one is true then the other will become untrue, isn't it?  Both the statements are true!
(To be continued.)



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