Tuesday, April 16, 2013

DEIVATHIN KURAL # 157 (Vol # 6) Dated 16 Apr 2013


DEIVATHIN KURAL # 157 (Vol # 6) Dated 16 Apr 2013

(These e-mails are translations of talks given by PeriyavaaL of Kanchi Kaamakoti Peetam, over a period of some 60 years while he was the pontiff in the earlier part of the last century. These have been published by Vanadi Padippagam, Chennai, in seven volumes of a thousand pages each as Deivathin Kural. Today we are going ahead from the middle of page No 1075 of Volume 6 of the Tamil original. The readers may note that herein ‘man/he’ includes ‘woman/she’ too mostly. These e-mails are all available at   http://Advaitham.blogspot.com updated constantly)

765.            Though he has all the powers, efficacy and ability, it is all her gift.  She can be rightfully called the Easwari    and not him!  But it is she who let him have at least that name, as a mere something in lieu!  Still there is a fifth person, out of five 'Pancha Kritya Murthy-s'. After Srushti, Stiti, Samhãra and Tirodãna, there has to be someone for the fifth important job of Anugraha.  Looking at what Easwara has done, AmbãL was musing on these lines.  "Let this man not assume a still outlandish name.  There can be nothing more than us.  If at all someone can be considered our equal may be he is our husband Siva.  I hope this fifth man does not take that name of Siva!"  So she called him up and told him in no uncertain terms, "My dear Sir, please listen!  You better have a name to your liking, but let it not be Siva, OK?"

766.            There was a ranch owner known as PaNNaiyar a generic name for such.  One of his workers was a pariah known as 'PerumãL', which in Tamil means a 'Big Man' a title normally alluding to Vishnu.  This PaNNaiyar was an ardent devotee of Vishnu and so a VaishNava.  He was slightly squeamish about calling one of his lowly workers in the name of his revered God!  So he told him, "You better change your name."  His reply was, "Sir!  It cannot be done easily.  I have to tell the village chief – Nattãmai', to get the name changed in all the records and announce the change of name for all to know in a feast which should be done after due Pooja in the village temple!  There will be a lot of expense involved in changing the records, arranging the Pooja in the temple and organizing the feast for the whole village, Sir!" he was hesitantly elongating!  "That is alright, I will take care of all the expenses," said the PaNNaiyar!  As long as he does not have to call him as PerumãL, he was prepared to bear the expenses!  Finally one day, he came back after successfully getting his name changed in the village records and getting it announced in a proper social gathering arranged for that purpose!  The PaNNaiyar asked him, "OK.  What is your name now?"  The man answered, "Sir, it is now 'Peddha PerumãL'"! That led to an adage as, 'பெருமாள் போய்ப் பெத்த பெருமாள் வந்தானாம்!'

767.            It is something like saying, 'instead of the Big Man, Bigger Big Man came!'  In VaishNavas' language 'PerumãL Kovil' is the Kanchipuram Varadarãja PerumãL Kovil.  (Kovil in Tamil means Temple.)  If it is just a bare Kovil, when they mention it, it means the Srirangam Kovil only.  But for Ranganãtha PerumãL they will add another adjective for the same word as 'Periya' to mean big or huge or any of its synonyms and say, 'Periya PerumãL Arangar'!  In fact, in AruNa Giri Natha's Thiruppugazh also this phrase 'Periya PerumãL Arangar' (in the song starting with, 'கருவின் உருவாகி வந்து') occurs.  For a long period of time the Tamil Land was under the rule of Telugu people and so many Telugu words have become part of the colloquial in Tamil.  One such word is 'Peddha' which is also a synonym for 'big'!  The apprehension of AmbãL that the fifth in the 'Pancha Kritya Murthys' may not become another Siva and have some other name, led to this story of 'PerumãL' getting his name changed to 'Peddha PerumãL'!  If the readers are apprehensive as to what was his name finally, the answer is, 'Yes it was another Siva, as 'Sadãsiva', as our ÃchãryãL says, "सदा-पूर्व:- शिव:" – that is, another Siva with the prefix of 'Sadã' (meaning 'ever') that is 'Sadãsiva'! 

768.            Evidently the poet has been mischievous in saying, Siva with the prefix of 'Sadã', instead of simply saying 'Sadãsiva', isn't it?  He has done that with AmbãL, as children always do with their mother in a playful mood!  It was AmbãL who first told the 'Anugraha Murthy', not to have Siva as the name, which made him mischievous enough to have the name as 'Sadãsiva' – not just Siva but 'forever Siva'!  The poet depicts this scene with some subtle literary nuance, while saying, "सदा-पूर्व:-शिव:" – that is, another Siva with the prefix of 'Sadã', so that the readers may wonder as to what is behind the scene and mull over the situation.  Thus the truth will anyhow be out and also make a deep impression on the mind!  If the 'Pancha Kritya Murthys' names are just listed one after the other, people may just read through!  So the poet says, 'Siva with a prefix as Sadã', which will reveal the way AmbãL was fooled for the whole world to know!

769.            The point that I wished to make was about the number of ways that AmbãL is related to Swami, not simply as husband and wife only!  For Swami who is Rudra, Easwara and Sadãsiva, AmbãL is the Boss / Controller and he is the worker as given in the 24th sloka.  In the next sloka No 25 the poet says, "The Pooja done to you is tantamount to doing Pooja to the holy trinity of Brhma, VishNu and Rudra, as their head is in your feet and they are raising their arms together in salutation high above their heads, while doing Namaskãra to you!  Their palms are like the lotus buds being offered with reverence at your feet!  Now the flowers being showered at your feet with reverence by other devotees are falling in their hands and heads!  So doing Pooja to your feet becomes devotional offering of flowers at their hands and heads!"  Here Siva as Rudra is AmbãL's devotee!

770.            Further he can be considered as her child also!  How is that?    The poet says, 'thriãNãm devanãm thriguNa janitãnãm tava sive' – 'त्रयाणाम देवानां त्रिगुण जनितानां तव शिवे'. He has called in the addressing declension of 'Sivã' as 'Sivé' with deep sense.  Mandookya Upanishad says the Sivam is Chaturtam – the fourth stage above the three GuNas known as 'Tureeyam'.  As Sivam it is NirguNa, Nishkriya, Nishkãma, and is totally unaffected!  Siva's Chit Shakti starts as Ichcha Shakti, becomes Kãmeswari, generates the three GuNas and from those three qualitative characteristics, creates the three Murthys responsible for the three jobs of Creation, Governance/Maintenance and Destruction/Re-absorption – 'तव त्रिगुण जनितानां' – from which are born the 'three Murthys'!  That means that she is the mother and they are as good as her children.  Another way of looking at it is to think of her as the grand-mother, with the three GuNas as her children and the Tri-Murthys as personification of the three GuNas as her grand-children!  There is one such relationship for the Rudra-Siva with AmbãL!

771.            In the next sloka No 26, it is said that during 'Maha Samhãra' when none of the divine beings are able to survive, including the 'Pancha Kritya Murthys' are destroyed, she is the one directing the operations!  The duality shop has closed its shutters!  There is no chance of creation or sustenance and evidently no chance for Tirodãna and or Anugraha, since there is nobody from whom things have to be hidden and none to be given Anugraha!  Only destruction or Samhãra is the order of the day!  Rudra, Maheshwara and Sadasiva cease to exist.  The Pancha Brhmãsana is known as Pancha Pretãsana, then, meaning the 'Seat of Five Cadavers'. It is she who gives them the authority and power to function.  If she does not do so, they are as good as dead bodies, isn't it?  That is why such a name is given during the period of Maha Samhãra, when Pancha Brhmãsana becomes Pancha Pretãsana!  In the 249th name in Lalitha Sahasranãma it is 'Pancha pretãsanãseenã', wherein she is said to be seated in throne made up of five cadavers, while the 947th name is 'Pancha preta manjãdisãyinyai', in which she is said to be in such a bed made up of five cadavers!  Can you think beyond the gruesomeness of the description and see how she remains above such, totally unaffected?

772.            She is Kãmeswari with Ichcha Shakti the wish to effectively get the Maha Samhãra conducted as well as having the power of Kriya Shakti to do so!  She being the Nitya Sumangali, her husband remains with her even during the Maha Pralaya, as said in the 8th sloka, "शिवाकारे मन्जे परमशिव पर्यङ्ग निलयां"That Parama Siva with her seated on the lap on the Pancha Brhma / Pancha Preta Seat is none other than this Kãmeswara.  The same scene is shown as being re-enacted in the sloka No 26 as "महा संहारे अस्मिन विहरति सति त्वत्पतिरसौ"!  Though it may sound and seem to be cruel that they are playing around with each other when the whole world is being annihilated, destroyed and re-absorbed; on the other hand is it not an act of mercy to relieve all the Jivas of involvement and be given a long period of rest?  To be taken out of the path of Karma or Kãma; both are a welcome relief indeed!

773.            For so long I have been repeating the meaning of 'viharati' – ' विहरति', to mean fun and frolic or gambolling.  But that word could also mean 'Samhãra' or 'SamharaNa' as the synonyms can be, 'haraNam' / 'apaharaNam' / 'viharaNam' / 'apahãram' / and 'vihãram'.  So instead of thinking that he is playing around with his wife, during 'Maha Samhãra' it is more in the rightness of things to understand that he is totally involved in his appointed role!  I am giving this meaning so as to save AmbãL's name and reputation, (PeriyavãL says smilingly).  What looks cruel apparently and outwardly is not being done by her, though it is all her plan only!  Till now Kãmeswara had no active role to play!  Now in the end chapter of the drama known as Srushti – Stiti - Samhãra, he is playing an active role!  But, for my this interpretation, I have clear evidence in Lalitha Sahasranãma when it says, "महेश्वर महाकल्प महा ताण्डव साक्षिणी" – meaning that for that final act of Pralaya at the end of 'Maha Kalpam' which occurs after many such 'Kalpas', she is the witness – Maha Thãndava SãkshiNi!  Nobody can now dispute my interpretation!

774.            Now, this is a very new and novel relationship between AmbãL and Easwara, as normally understood by us for long!  So far, she was the active and ever dynamic partner and Siva was only a witness as the inner Ãtma Swaroopa!  Here he is the active entity and she is the witness!  If Rudra's Samhãra is one of the three main jobs of Srushti – Stiti – Samhãra; his own elimination occurs in this Maha Samhãra and there also Swami is the dynamic partner and AmbãL is only a witness!  So is AmbãL the silent witness in the back-ground in Chidambaram – which is the foremost amongst all Saiva Kshetrãs.  There Nataraja is the King as the name indicates, as the real sovereign dancing away to glory.   As an exact counter poise, in Madurai she is the dynamic entity, where all pooja and Neivedyam is for her and Easwara is quietly in the back-ground!  In the villages, when the visitor wishes to know as to who is more predominant, whether it is the Master of the house or the Mistresses, he will ask the servants quietly as an aside in a whisper if it is 'Madurai or Chidambaram'?
(To be continued.)
Sambhomahadeva



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