Saturday, September 13, 2008

Deivathin Kural # 83 of (Vol 2) of 13 Feb 2008.

Om Namah Sivaya.

Deivathin Kural # 83 of (Vol 2) of 13 Feb 2008.

(Note 1. We are to remind the readers that herein, 'he' as a word stands for 'she' as well. When Tamil or Sanskrit words are transliterated in English, the single vowel will indicate a short utterance and a double vowel will indicate a longer pronounciation. Words in Sanskrit script not being available, the transliteration spellings and thereby the pronounciation, especially of names may be at variance from what it should be! I offer my sincere apologies for the likely errors, as the one doing the translation. ---KTSV Sarma. Note 2. It may please be noted that the talk is dated some time in the late 1930's to early 60's.


(Continued from Deivathin Kural # 82 of (Vol 2) of 11 Feb 2008.)

40. We have seen that Vyakaranam came from Nataraja's Damaru. Nyaya and Vaiseshika Sastras too, are from Siva only. In both of them Maheswara is considered as the 'Nimittha Karanam' for the very creation of the world. It can be said that all the Saiva Religions follow the Nyaya / Vaiseshika Sastras.

The Cause of Creation.

41. There are two causes for anything and everything. One is the 'Nimitta Kaarana' and the other is the 'Upaadaana Kaarana', which could be taken as the Primary (or Active) and Secondary (or Supportive) Causes. For a pot to be made, we need clayish earth. That is the Upaadaana Kaarana. But that clay by itself cannot become a pot. There has to be a pot-maker. The Potter is the Nimitta Kaarana. (In Jyotisham, we discussed Nimittam, where the meaning of the word was, 'chance indicators or omens', [ref DK # 70 of 10 Jan 2008.] Here the meaning of Nimitta Karanam, is slightly different.) Nyaya-Vaiseshikam holds the view that using the 'Anu' as the Upaadaana Kaaranam, the Nimitta Kaaranam Easwara has made the Jagat.

42. To turn the clay in to a pot, the potter is essential. If the potter is not there, there is no pot in the clay. The potter creates the non-existant pot from the clayish earth. This statement is called the 'Aramba Vadam' or the Opening Statement or Asat-Karya-Vadam. Sat is 'existing'. Asat is 'non-existing'. There is no pot in the clay. The non-existing pot came from the clay which originally had no pot. This has been done by the potter. Similarly, Easwara has made the creation-Jagat from the atoms which originally had no Jagat, as per Nyaya.

43. I have told you earlier that the followers of Sankhya never have a God. They will say that Prakirti ie., Nature, by itself metamorphosed into the Jagat. This is not exactly similar to the point of view of present day Agnost's. Because, the Sankhya followers, believed in the existance of the Purusha, (almost similar to the Nirguna Brhmam,) whose very presence called, 'Saannidyam', had the power of causing the inanimate Prakirti to function so systematically, they claim. As per their beliefs, Purusha does not directly get involved with the job of creation. Earth revolves. Sun's rays fall on the earth. That causes the flower to bloom; water to evaporate, plants to grow, seasons to change and so on. These things just happen without any intentional involvement of the Sun. There is no intension on the part of the Sun to dry up a lake or grow plants. It just happens by his presence. Your hands get benumbed on touching the ice. The piece of ice is not an interested party. Exactly similarly, Purusha's very presence, that is 'Sannidyam', makes things happen in Nature. Nature does it all, by the power got from the Purusha. There is no 'Nimitta Karanam' of an involved Easwara. Prakriti metamorphed on its own into the Creation. This is known as the 'Parinama Vadam' of the Sankhyas. We can call it the 'Nature's Metamorphosis Theory'.

44. Against the Nyaya's 'Asat-karya-vada', the Sankhya's 'Sat-karya-vada' is the counter. As per Nyaya, the pot that was not there in the 'Upaadaaana Karana' of clayish sand, but was made by the Potter, the Nimitta Kaarana. The Sankhya's Sat-karya-vada, says that, the pot was all along in the clayish sand. Their counter runs on the following lines:- "The potter did not make anything that was already not there. The 'Teli' brings out the oil by crushing the oil- seed, which was all the time containing the oil. Same way, the potter by his labour brought out the pot. Can you bring out oil from clay or make a pot of oil-seeds? It is all a matter of re-adjusment and re-presentation."

45. Our Acharyal, Adi Sankara, on the other hand says, "Neither 'Aramba Vadam, nor Parinama Vadam'. It is one Brhmam which is seen as, clayish-sand and oil-seed; potter and teli; pot and oil; through the inter-phase of Maya. There is no clay without the potter. So, 'Aramba Vadam', it cannot be. It is also wrong to say that it is like the conversion of milk into curd, since after such conversion, there will be no milk. That is, Brhmam after conversion in to the Jagat, will be no more Brhmam. That is not the case. So, this is not similar to metamorphosis either. So, this is not 'Parinama Vadam'. Remaining the Suddha Nirguna Brhmam, on the one hand, the seeming display is all show, and called it 'Vivarta Vadam'.

46. A piece of rope is seen as a snake in dim light. The 'Upaadaana Karana' rope has not become a snake, but, is seen only, as a snake. So this is not Aramba Vadam. Rope has not transformed in to a snake either. So, not a case of Parinaama Vadam. Rope has remained a rope. In our ignorance, we see the rope as a snake. Exactly similarly, the Brhmam has remained Brhmam. But due to our ignorance is seen as Jagat of so many forms, shapes and names, including ourselves! To reach this point of understanding, Nyaya has given us the stair case through Yukti Vichara.

47. By using Yukti, having learnt the 'Padartha / word-meaning', through that, attaining absolute dispassion, we reach a plateau of 'no-happiness-sadness-state', known as 'Apavargam'. There Nyayam-Vaiseshikam stops. There can be no progress further in Dwaitam! Adwaitam is the end state of total fulfilment, when you lose your individuality and gain oneness with all; from limited to unlimited; from mortality to immortality! That the Nyaya Sastra motivates us to progress further from where we are, in the scale of Agnana towards Gnana, is something great indeed.

48. Another greatness of this Sastra of course is that, whatever methods of logical arguments are there, using them, it has convincingly countered, Buddhists, Sankhyas, Charvahas(of the Enjoy and Make Merry Philosophy) and others, to clearly establish Easwara as the Karta.

Some Stories and Some Arguements.

49. Gangesa Mishra Upadhyaaya has written a book by the name of 'Tatva Chintamani', in which he has talked of 64 different types of Arguments of Analysis. Since we have been carrying out some amount of cerebral exercises about, 'Aaramba / Parinama / Maya / Apavarga' Vaadams, let me tell you a story about that man who has written about 64 types of Vaadams! Yes, the story of Gangesa.

50. To start with Gangesa was known as an idiot. He was from a Brahmin family in Bengal. It used to be the custom that the high class brahmins would get married to a number of a little lower class brahmin girls. Gangesar got married and stayed in his father-in-law's house. His fame as an idiot, probably saved him from getting more girls in marriage! Bengalis eat fish. Six months in a year, the country side is flooded. No place for vegetable garden. So, they consider fish as a vagetable only. (Actually the fish has the sobriquet as, 'Jala Pushpam' or 'Neer Vaazhaikkai'!)

51. In Gangesar's Father-in-law's house, they used to cook fish quite often. Instead of being addressed with any respect as the son-in-law of the family, he used to be called only as, 'Ganga'. since he was a known idiot, they used to serve him only the pieces full of bones, while the juicy pieces would go to other's plates. then they would make fun of him!

52. He did not like the way he was being treated. One day, he just walked out of the house and did not return. He went away to Kasi. He studied for ten years and learnt all the tricks of the trade. He was neither being missed much, nor was he expected to change much! So when he returned, the same drama of serving the bony-pieces on his plate was enacted. Then he said, "...naaham ganga: kinthu gangesa misra:...", meaning, 'I am not Ganga anymore but, Gangesa Mishra. If I were the same old Ganga, it is OK for you serve the pieces full of bones as people do in the Ganges river, while depositing the dead man's ashes of bones; but I am back qualified enough to claim the Title of Mishra after my name! So, you better watch out whom you are dealing with, if you have any interest in your daughter's happy married life!' All this he conveyed, with that one sentence.

53. It is that Gangesa Mishra who authored the 'Tatva Chintamani' by which name 'Nyayam' as a Sastram got rejuvenated. For that, one Raghunatha Siromani wrote a commentary known as 'Deetiti'. (Only after his time, sanskrit scholors started getting the Title of 'Siromani'.) Taking just ten sentences from Raghunatha Siromani's book, one Gadhadara has written an elaboration known as, 'Gadhadari'. This is a big book, but with not a single superfluous word. You are considered as a very intelligent scholor, If you learn only five principles / vaadam, from it. If you learn ten of them, you are a Master. There is a 'Praamaanya Vadam' on what is a Pramaanam. Once you master it, you are considered as a Maestro.

(More about 'Praamanya Vaadam' in the next E-mail.)



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