Saturday, September 13, 2008

Deivathin Kural # 82 of (Vol 2) of 11 Feb 2008.

Om Namah Sivaya.

Deivathin Kural # 82 of (Vol 2) of 11 Feb 2008.

(Note 1. We are to remind the readers that herein, 'he' as a word stands for 'she' as well. When Tamil or Sanskrit words are transliterated in English, the single vowel will indicate a short utterance and a double vowel will indicate a longer pronounciation. Words in Sanskrit script not being available, the transliteration spellings and thereby the pronounciation, especially of names may be at variance from what it should be! I offer my sincere apologies for the likely errors, as the one doing the translation. ---KTSV Sarma. Note 2. It may please be noted that the talk is dated some time in the late 1930's to early 60's.


(Continued from Deivathin Kural # 81 of (Vol 2) of 09 Feb 2008.)

30. In continuing the search for truth using such Pramanas, where Nyayam finishes, Vaiseshikam takes off. Vaiseshikam was established by a Maharishi by the name of Gana Natha. Everything is made up of Parama Anu, the elementary particles he says. Easwara has made this world in various combinations of these 'Parama Anu' things. Jagat the World of Change, Jeevan and Easwara; are all seperate things, in Nyaya-Vaiseshika Siddhanta. Not One as in Adwaita. Where has the Chaitanya or Sentience of the individual come from? How did the the Elememtary Particle of Parama Anu evolve? When you ask these queries and continue your search, you may go on to Dwaitam, Visishtadwaitam and Adwaitam. But, before that, in the intermediate stage, we need the Nyaya Sastram.

31. (KTSV adds:- 'Pagutharivu' as a catch phrase, has cought the common man's imagination in Tamil Nadu, ever sice the Dravida movement took roots, some 100 years back. 'Paguthu Arivalar Iyakkam' of so-called reformists has made trmendous inroads, in to all walks of life, especially in to Politics, Drama and Cinema. However, this movement was much coloured by Anti-Brahminism and Atheism; while capturing power in politics and the society. But the interesting fact behind the whole thing has been that, Anti-Brahminism, was a creation of the Britishers, in their endless search for ways and means of their policy of 'Divide and Rule', before they came to power. This became, 'Keep them divided and continue to Rule', once they were in power. This whole idea suited E.V.Ramaswamy Naicker and his followers. They were of course, inadvertantly aided by a few facts. One was that at the turn of the century the Brahmin community in the South was leaderless and disorganised. Nationalism was taking the center stage, and the Caste structure was as it is falling by the way side. There were many who were brahmins by birth, but not by belief, attitude and behaviour! Then, ever since Mcaulay's new Education policy took effect, Brahmins were the first to renege their professional duties of Adhyayanam and Adhyapakam. They opted for the benefits of monopolizing new education system, the Sarkari Babudom, bureaucracy and I.C.S. Thus unwittingly, Brahmins themselves were responsible for the decline in their traditional status, socially and otherwise. This background information will assist in understanding what Periyaval says hereinafter.)

32. Actually it is our Nyaya Sastra that gives the rightful place for, 'Paguththu Arivu'. What is 'Paguththu Arivu'? It is learning by differenciation. Nyayam does a lot of analysis of the process of learning. That does not mean however that, it should only be used for the so called Rationalism, Materialism and Atheism. It can be used in Theistic studies quite effectively, fruitfully. Adi Sankara affirmed the main purpose of human existance is to identify the eternal from amongst the transient, temporary. He said, I Quote:- "...nitya anitya viveka vichara:..." , as the most important exercise for the thinking brain. When there is so much apparent sophistication and intelligence in the coming into being of a leaf or the blossoming of a flower; so much connectivity and inter dependence in every iota of existance; one has to be idiotically dense or too preoccupied in selfish pursuits; not to sense the existanse of a far superior Being in the background, call it Easwara or what you want! Nyaya sastram recognises that there are coneptual ideas beyond the reach of our brains and so we have to accept at least conceptually the existance of such things, if they are affirmed by the Vedas and or if confirmed by the words of exceptionally unselfish intelligentia of the past of irreproacheable character.

33. Luckily in Nyaya Sastra, Yukti of logical analysis has not been permitted to become corrupted into Kuyukti! Using the powers and tools of Logic, analysis of high quality of integrity will give intellectual clarity. On such occassions, ie., when you have attained to Intellectual Clarity, then and only then, there will be scope for the truth that is, normally beyond our comprehension, to flash in our consciouness. Yes. In one way it is preferable not to apply our limited minds at all and blindly believe in God and the Sastras. But we are not able to come up that way either! It is certainly deplorable, if we neither have blind beliefs and trust in the words of elders and the Vedas; nor are we ready to apply our minds to the task, setting aside our Egos, selfishness, desire for name and fame and the 'lure of lucre'. It is better to apply our limited wherewithal, in the quest to find out answers to questions such as, what are we?, what is God?, who am I? and so on; instead living, eating and copulating like animals! Instead it is better to come to a conclusion that there is no God. It is better if you decide not to believe in a God and become an agnostic! Because if the non-believer continues his process of elimination of various possibilities, he may arrive at the correct answers some day, and decide to change his ways. Not the unthinking lazy one who refuses to raise above the life of an animal!

34. That is why, 'Charvaham' was accepted as one of the Siddhantam / Principled Stand Point of View, in our religion. It means literally, 'Pleasant Sounding' Philosophy. "Arre Yar! Forget about all this God and Ghost. There is no meaning in troubling yourself with fasting, control of the senses, devotionary procedures and ceremonies; impulse control and deferred gratification and such things. Enjoy and make merry. We have only one life. Better make the best use of it", and so on! The message is quite nice to hear in the short run. But what we find is that, when we give in to such temptations, there are more pifalls and problems in the way. The net result in the process seems a mix of some happiness with plenty of unhappiness! Religion anywhere came into being to address this very problem, in all societies.

All Type of Knowledge are Required!

35. The Brain and Mind should be used. The more we use them, they are sharpened accordingly. You have to work towards, 'Chitta Suddhi'. You have to train yourself to become a useful member of the Family and Society. Take care of your self and others around you successively expanding your area of responsibilities; while all the time giving attention to the most important question that no one can run away from. Otherwise, why should Adi Sankara, who was convinced that the whole world is an imaginary projection of Maya; take pains to learn so many Sastras, Arts and Sciences, to raise to the exalted Throne of Sarvagna? In Sankara Vijayam, (Adi Sankara's biography), there is a slokam(Madaveeyam IV.20), which says that He had attained mastery over, Maharishi Kapila's Sankhyam, Gana Natha's Nyayam, Patanjali's Yoga Sastram, KumarilaBhatta's Meemamsai and so on. Of course he was totally knowledgeable about Vedas and Upanishads, Brhma Sutra, Mantra,Tantra and Yantra Sastras. He must have learnt the local languages and dialects, on the move as he went walking around the length and bredth of this country, from Kanyakumari to Kashmir, Gujarat to Bengal, three times. He finished his job and was gone by the time he was 32 years of age!

36. Adwaitam encompasses even such Sastras and Religions, which do not even mention Adwaitam. That is why, Myself carrying the Name of Sankarachariyar, am talking to you about all these Sastras. Adwaitam in itself contains, Dwaitam, Visishtadwaitam, Saivam, Vaishnavam and so on. 'Do unto others as you would like to be done unto yourself', because, 'those others are also yourself' says Adwaitam! 'Do not think of God in any idol or form only, but see him in every iota of existance!' To say the obvious, the 'Ten Commandments' were too elementary. Once you learnt the 'Athichudi' by Avvaiyar Patti, before learning how to write, the 'Ten Commandments' were already in your blood! Even if other religions and sects criticise or curse Adwaitam, it still accommodates those other beliefs in itself. Adwaitam does not criticise other beliefs for being what it is, but only tells them not to stop, but proceed ahead. No other religion or sect or belief is totally wrong, as per Adwaitam. 'Yes, OK. You are right. But proceed further. That is only the transit point.'

Books on Nyaya / Tarka Sastra.

37. Gowthama Rishi who wrote the 'Nyaya Sutra' had a name, 'Aksha Pada'. It seems that he was constantly thinking and analysing the various ideas, concepts, arguments for and against; that this mortal world was never visible to his eyes. Like we hear about the scientists of to-day being, 'absent minded professors', Gowthama was one such. So, reportedly one day, mulling over some intricate point of subtlety, he fell into a well! God Himself is said to have got him out of the well and fitted eyes in his legs, (may be with a printed circuit chip of a small brain in the leg also?!). Since he had eyes in his legs, (Aksha = Eyes, Pada = Legs), he was nick-named, 'Akshapada'.

38. For his Sutra, the Bhashyam was done by Vatsyayana; and Vartikam was done by, Udyodakara. A very die-hard Adwaitin Vachaspati Misra, has written an explanatory thesis on the Vartikam, known as 'Nyaya Vartika Tatparya Tika'. To this, Udayanachariyar has written, a further commentary. That book is known as 'Tatparya Tika Parisuddhi'. Udayanar has also written another book by the name of 'Nyaya Kusumanjali'. In one of the earlier talks, I have mentioned that, It is this Udayanachariyar, who convincingly levelled criticisms against Buddhism, that it was virtually eased out of India, for failing to say anything about God!. There is one 'Nyaya Manjari' as another Bhashyam for 'Nyaya Sutram', written by one Jayandar. Annam Bhattar, has written a book 'Tarka Sangraham', a book on Nyaya and also has written an enlarged commentary on that himself, known as 'Tarka Sangraha Deepika'. Actually to-day anyone studying Nyaya Sastra, starts with these two books mentioned at the end.

39. For the Vaiseshika Sutram, there is a 'Ravana Bhashyam', written by 'Gana Nada or Ganaada Maharishi', which is said to be lost forever. People used to make fun of that, saying that Ganaada Rishi's work 'Kaanada poyidutthu' in Tamil, meaning it is lost. Another Pundit made an amendment that he was not a 'Kaanaada' (Not seen) Maharishi, but a Maharishi who had seen the inner meaning of everything! ('Kanda Maharishi'). What we have is a Bhashyam written by Prashastha Pada named, 'Pada Artha Dharma Sangraha', to which Udayanar has written a commentary. In recent times Uddamur Veeraraghava Achariyar has written a book known as 'Vaiseshika Rasaayanam'. Vaiseshikam is also known as 'Oulukya Darsanam'. Oolukam in Sanskrit means the Owl. The very English name must have come from that! Like Gowthama allways lost in thought, this man was lost to the world in research throughout the day and was seen only in the night. So he got the sobriquet of 'The Owl'! In studying any Sastra, Vyakaranam and Vaiseshikam are like reference books. that is why there is a statement in circulation as, "...gaanaatham paanineeyam cha sarva saastropakaaram...".

(To be continued.)



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