Saturday, September 13, 2008

Deivathin Kural # 80 of (Vol 2) of 07 Feb 2008.

Om Namah Sivaya.

Deivathin Kural # 80 of (Vol 2) of 07 Feb 2008.

(Note 1. We are to remind the readers that herein, 'he' as a word stands for 'she' as well. When Tamil or Sanskrit words are transliterated in English, the single vowel will indicate a short utterance and a double vowel will indicate a longer pronounciation. Words in Sanskrit script not being available, the transliteration spellings and thereby the pronounciation, especially of names may be at variance from what it should be! I offer my sincere apologies for the likely errors, as the one doing the translation. ---KTSV Sarma. Note 2. It may please be noted that the talk is dated some time in the late 1930's to early 60's.


1. Nyaya Sastram is also known as Tarka Sastram. This has been done by Gowthama Rishi. The main aim of the Sastram is to prove to the whole world that, for everything God is the Karta or Doer, through analysis of existing facts, through the process of reasoning, deduction, inference and induction. There is one word for all this in Sanskrit, 'Yukti' or Logic.

2. Logic is essential. Vedam says something. It's meaning is decided by Meemamsai. We believe in the Vedam. Still this mind is capable of doubting. So, to satisfy and reassure this doubting mind, if we should confirm whatever the Vedam has said, by using as many lines of logic as possible. Then our belief will become strong and deep rooted. When a 'Pandal' is being erected, the main staff known as 'Pandal Kaal', is the first one to be embedded in the ground. It is checked and ensured that it is firmly fixed. Then only the huge edifice that comes up will stand firm. Similarly, the truths of the Vedas should be affirmed in the mind, by as many means as possible. While doing so, 'Yuktis' may be used, but not 'Kuyuktis'.

3. Sri Sankaracharya Swami was about drop his mortal body, his Sishyas requested him to tell them a brief 'Upadesa'. He had said many things, in his life time. There was no contradictions in his teachings or scope for doubts. However, the students might have just wanted to hear the nectar of his 'Upadesa', at least one more time. What he said at that time was known as 'Upadesa Panchakam' or 'Sopana Panchakam'. In it he says, "...dustarkaat suviramyatam; sruthimatas tarko anusandeeyatam...". It means, 'in analysing and understanding what the Sruthi says, steer clear of dissensions and wrangles, but go by reasoning and logic'.

4. If you do not ascertain the truth of the Vedic statements and your beliefs in them, it is like walking through a forest with your eyes closed. To confirm and affirm, the Vedic statements, using various means of logic is done by 'Nyayam', as written by Gowthama Rishi. Gana Nathar has also done a 'Nyaya Sastram' which is known as 'Vaiseshikam', because it is something special also. Nyaya Sastram is very systematic in it's approach, in analysing subjects starting from the basics, goes on to more abstract ideas, but very close to the philosopher's heart, such as, Atma or Soul, Jeevan, Jagat, Easwara, Moksham and goes on to join the Vaiseshikam (which specialises on those). Both the Sastras cover Tarkam (Logic) and Tatvam (Philosophy). Philosophy is being covered through Logic.

5. Nyaya Sastram studies the truth, using four tools(known as 'Pramanams'). They are 'Pratyatcham', 'Anumanam', 'Upamanam' and 'Sabdam'. Pratyatcham, are things we get to know through the five senses namely, Eyes, Ears, Nose, Mouth or Tongue and Skin, giving us the inputs of, seeing, hearing, smell, taste and touch, respectively. Then comes Anumanam or Inference. This is a very important Pramanam. What is 'Anumanam'? From a distance, on top of the hill, you see some smoke. You do not see the fire. But, you can make a guess that there must be some fire. This is Anumanam. Here the fire is 'Sadhyam', the indicator smoke is the 'Sadanam'(means) or 'Lingam'(sign) or 'Hetu'(cause).

6. In the religion that we follow, we are supposed to recieve from the Guru, the Upadesa. That action is known as 'Sravanam' or hearing. Then we are required to mull over what the Guru has told us. This is known as 'Mananam'. To look at it from different angles, deliberate on it, visualise, think, relate it to known facts, examine, ponder, contemplate and so on. All this in one word is 'Mananam with Anumamam'. What is not within the purview of the five senses and the mind, has to be comprehended and understood through Anumanam. Paramatma and Jeevatma cannot be seen or heard or known by any other means. We cannot know 'Moktcham' either. We also do not know any way out of this maze. To get to know something unknown, through the known is 'Anumanam', like knowing that there are rain bearing clouds, from thunder and lightning.

7. By doing Vaidik Karmas we got 'Chitta Suddhi'. We were able to reach a good Preceptor. He told us something. We believed in it. Then if somebody else says something else, we will get doubts in our minds. All the doubts should be got verified and cleared. To so decide, Anumanam and such tools will be useful. Doing that is the job of 'Nyayam' and 'Vaiseshikam'.

'Padartham' ie., Word Meaning.

8. This Sanskrit word 'padartham' has come to mean, matter, material and or thing, in Tamil and Hindi. Our religion holds the view that, if you go in to the meaning of each word, the true essence will be revealed. To do so, we should make use of all our faculties. That by which we get to know the 'Padartham' is, 'Pramanam'.

9. The direct tools (pratyaksha pramanam) for such learning, being the five senses have only limited capacity. Any basic book on anatomy, (or the series of articles in Reader's Digest, with titles such as, 'I am John's Eyes and so on,) will tell you that, these five senses of humans' function within certain ranges. The colours on either side of VIBYOR are not visible to our eyes. Human ear can only operate within 20 to 20,000 Hz. Whales and Bats can hear what is inaudible to us. Some insects can lift many times their body weight. Some of them can jump 20 times their own size. Our sense of taste and touch are varied and limited. Everyone knows that a dog can smell better. A fly can home on to the location of sweet and or garbage. A fish knows it's way back to the place of it's origin, a sweet water lake up in the mountains inland, from across thousands of miles of the ocean! There are more things unknown to us than known. Within that too, these five senses' capabilities are rather limited. (Manikka Vachagar says, "...malanga pulanaindum vanjanayai seyya...", thereby to mean that, these five senses are all the time duping us'!) The point made is that, we have to make an estimate or assessment of the 'Unknown' based on the 'Known', using 'Anumanam'. For this purpose, 'Nyayam' is an Upangam of the Vedas. Meemamsai helps in Sravanam and Nyayam helps in Mananam.

10. All padartham, that is matter, has been classified into seven types. All the things of the world can not be known individually. But, a broad grouping in to seven types is possible. Those also can be one of two, as real and unreal, as "...bhaavo...abhavascha...", or, being and non-being. So, there are six of real or being and one of unreal or non-being. So, there are six types of 'bhaava' and one of 'abhaava'. If you ask me as to how can the unreal be, the answer is that, we are looking at 'pada artham' that is, 'word meaning' and unreal is also a word with a meaning! 'Abhavam' is there in some places and in some places, it is not there. Say there is a flower here. There, the flower is not. But the flower's abhavam is there. There is water in the lake. There is no water in the desert. Water's abhavam is there in the desert. Similarly, when this lake dries up, there is no water in the lake. Then water's abhavam is in the lake! So by being present in some places some times and not present at some places some times, abhavam is also a padartham! Read this para again!

11. (KTSV adds:- As far as possible, I am trying not to translate the following Sanskrit words, while trying make you understand the meaning that is being conveyed. Since we are dealing with 'padartham' that is, 'word-meaning', I do not want to use words that may not fully cover the meaning that is meant to be. I am afraid that we are on 'razor's edge' here! For example, the word, Diraviyam or Dravyam, can mean, material, matter, money and all sorts of physical things.) The seven things, that is padarthams are; 'dravyam', 'gunam', 'karmam', 'samaanyam', 'visesham', 'samavaayam' and 'abhaavam'. Dravyam, Gunam and Karmam; are three 'Sat' padartham, which can be shown to be there. Amongst those first three also, it is only the first material, Dravyam, that can be shown physically, existing by itself! Now, Gunam means, the quality or charecteristics such as, gnanam, love, desire, sorrow, colour, awareness and so on; which cannot be shown seperately, but in relation to something. That basis of it's relation, known as Ashrayam, is Dravyam. Lotus is red. Red is the Gunam. The red colour cannot be shown by itself. The Ashrayam here is the Dravyam, lotus. We cannot know happiness and sadness, except when related to a man being happy or unhappy. When you look at the lotus flower, you will know the colour red.

12. Karmam is work. Somebody walks or runs, you can see that. The karmam will also depend on some Dravyam. You can see someone moving and not static. But unrelated to any dravyam, karma cannot be known. We have so far considered, three padarthas namely, Dravyam, Gunam and Karmam.

13. Fourth padartham is the Samanyam. Crudely this can be translated as commonality. It will show a class of people or animal or things. Many animals are there. The common thing amongst them is their, animalhood. That is samanyam. Amongst animals too some are cows and some are monkeys, say. Now again amongst cows also you could have another samanyam of Jersey Cows or Kangeyam Cows.

14. Next padartham is 'Visesham' or special quality. In one way, if there is an iota of existance, the most common property of that is it's uniqueness. Like they say that there is no other leaf like this particular leaf, or this piece of sand particle or ice crystal or human hair for that matter / padartham! So, 'Visesham' is the most common 'Samanyam', that individually identifies each specimen. Like amongst three similar Doberman Pinschers one each may be brown, blue or black.

15. One last padartham is 'Samavayam' or body-parts. When two dravyam combine, it is 'samyogam'. They can be apart or combine. But, 'samavayam' is the integral body-part of a padartham. For example,a gunam or karma is of a dravyam, is an inalienable part of that dravyam. Like when we talk of a fire, it's shape, heat and brightness are part of it or 'samavayam'. The seventh padartham is the 'abhavam' which I have already spoken about.

16. Thus as padartham has been classified into seven, each padartham in turn has been classified in many ways. Dravyam has been sorted in to nine different types. They are, Prithvi (Earth), Appu (Water), Tejas (Brilliance/Fire), Vayu (Air), Akasam (Space), Kalam (Time), Dik (Direction), Atma and Manas (Mind).

(To be continued.)



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