Saturday, September 13, 2008

Deivathin Kural # 74 of (Vol 2) of 21 Jan 2008.

Om Namah Sivaya.

Deivathin Kural # 74 of (Vol 2) of 21 Jan 2008.

(Note 1. We are to remind the readers that herein, 'he' as a word stands for 'she' as well. When Tamil or Sanskrit words are transliterated in English, the single vowel will indicate a short utterance and a double vowel will indicate a longer pronounciation. Words in Sanskrit script not being available, the transliteration spellings and thereby the pronounciation, especially of names may be at variance from what it should be! I offer my sincere apologies for the likely errors, as the one doing the translation. ---KTSV Sarma. Note 2. It may please be noted that the talk is dated some time in the late 1950's and early 60's.


Veda's Legal Interpretation.

1. For the Vaidik religion, there are 14 Vidya Sthanas (Learning Centers) which are like authoritative guidelines, as I said earlier. Out of them we have seen the four Vedas and the six Angas. The balance are called 'Veda Upa Angas'. Upa is secondary and Angas as we have seen earlier, are parts. There are four of them. They are, Meemaamsai, Nyayam, Puranam and Dharma Saastram. In the word 'Meemamsai', 'maam' is the root word or Dhatu. It means, 'venerated analysis'. What is Poojitam or venerated? It is the Vedam itself. Niruktam stops at giving the meaning of the words, like a dictionary does. Meemamsai is not like that. It goes deeper in to the meaning of the Mantras and try and arrive at the purpose of each and every Mantra.

2. As we have seen in the main Veda itself, Karma Kandam which occurs in the initial portions, is known as the Poorva Bhagam and Gnana Kandam which occurs in the later portions of the Veda, is known as the Uttara Bhagam. Similarly, we have two parts in Meemamsai as Poorva Meemamsai and Uttara Meemamsai. Poorva Meemamsai is of the confirmed opinion that, there is no need to be too intellectual about trying to cerebrally understand all the philosophy, since they are too complicated anyhow and our capacity to comprehend is rather limited! It is enough to blindly do what is required to be done. Leave everything to the Mantras. So, the Anushtanam of Karma is important. Period. Uttara Meemamsai, on the other hand is of the view that, all Karmas are so as to progressively bring the individual to Saatchaatkaara or Self-Realization!

3. While talking about Upanishads and Brhma Sutram, I have already given you more than an introduction about what is Uttara Meemamsai. This is what is called Brhma Vidya and Vedantam, being the basis for the concepts and traditions of Adwaitam-Visishtadwaitam-Dwitam. To-day we have taken up the Poorva-Meemamsai, as the subject of our study. Since Uttara Meemamsai has become famous as 'Vedantam', Meemamsai has come to mean only Poorva-Meemamsai. But while talking about this the other aspects of Vedantam cannot be avoided.

4. I have told you that for each Saastram, there is Sutram, Vaartikam and Bhashyam. For (Poorva) Meemamsai, the Sutram portion was done by Jaimini Maharishi and the Bhashyakarar was one Sabara Swamy. Vartikakarar was Kumarila Bhattar. His 'Bhatta Deepikai', is the most important reference book for this portion of the religion. While talking about Adi Sankara, I have discussed in detail as to how, this Kumarila Bhattar was an Avatara of Lord Subrahmanya / Muruga. In Meemamsai, there is another division known as the Prabhakara Madam as against this Bhatta Madam. We will not get into their differences. Amongst Meemamsakas, because some were followers of the principles as enunciated by Kumarila Bhattar, that portion was known as Bhatta Madam. The guiding principles of this part of the Meemamsai known as Bhatta Madam, have been given in brief as 'Bhatta Saaram', by Thirupputkuzhi Thaththachchariyar, in Tamil Nadu, at the advent of this century.

5. Amongst Sutras, Jaimini's Poorva Meemamsa Sutram is the biggest. It has 12 Adhyayas. Each Adhyaya has been divided into many Paadas and each Paada has been further divided into many Adikaranas. Thus there are a thousand Adhikaranas. Thus it discusses thousand different aspects of portions of the statements of Veda. Vedas are God's own creations. It is His Eternal Law. We are His citizens. He is the Supreme Ruler. He is our King. He has a whole lot of administrators namely, Indran, Vaayu, Varunan, Agni, Yama, Eesaanan, Kuberan, Nairruti and eight others known as Ashta Dig Paalakas and many other Devatas, to run and manage this whole 'macro and micro cosmos'. These ministers and administrators have to cater for all the life forms in these 14 different worlds! For which there has to be a centralised authority and a Universal Set of Acts, Rules and Regulations. That is what, these Vedas are all about. These can be studied to know about how we are required to behave and how the Bureaucracy is supposed to run all this. If there are any doubts in the legal aspects, Lawyers discuss and debate these things and Judges give rulings based on those discussions and counter arguements. This happens in our worldly life. Exactly similarly, for the set of Laws that is the Vedas, the Master of Interpretation is Jaimini. His analysis and directions are contained in Meemamsai.

6. Say there is a case in Allahabad, which becomes exemplarily quotable for some subtle point of interpretation of Law. They refer to this ruling, on a similar case in Bombay and give the decision. Similarly to think of all possible finer debatable issues, mention all possible objections, give all the logic for and against and then decide and give the ruling; is what is done in Meemaamsai. First take a 'Veda Vaakyam', that is the 'Vishaya Vakya' or subject matter; then raise the doubts, that is the 'Samsayam'; third step is to give the opposing view points, that is 'Poorva Paksham'; fourth is to raise the objections to the Poorva paksham, that is, 'Uttara Paksham'; fifth step is to decide on the ruling, 'that is all and no more!', that is 'Taatparyam' known as 'Nirnayam'. Each Nirnayam is an 'Adhikaranam'. I have already told you that there are a thousand adhikaranams in what Jaimini has done. Since it had a 1000 Adhikaranams, it has a name as 'Sahasra Adhikarani'. While doing that, 'artha nirnayam' to what is in the Vedas, many of the mistaken notions were set aside decisively.

7. What Jaimini has done are all short terse Sutras. All those Sutras have been enlarged and explained by Chabara Bhashyam. What Sabarar has done is called, 'Chabaram'. The hunters of those days used to have a name as 'Sabara'. The Sabari who gave berries to Sri Rama in Ramayanam, was from the hunting tribes of the forest. She wanted to feed Sri Rama with the best of the fruits, that she tested each fruit for its ripeness and then passed it on to Him to eat. Sabarar was Easwara Amsam. It is said that when Easwara came as a Hunter to give 'Pasupatha Astram' to Arjuna, He wrote this bhashyam, to Jaimini's Poorva Meemamsai.

8. As Poorva Meemamsai did the 'Artha Nirnayam' to the Poorva Kaandam of the Vedas, for the Uttara Kaandam of the Vedas, (that is the Upanishads), the 'Artha Nirnayam' has been done by Brhma Sutram, written by Veda Vyasar. The interesting twist to this is the fact that, Jaimini happens to be Vyasa's Sishya! That is, the Guru Vyasa has written the Sutras for the end portion of the Vedas, namely for the Upanishads / Vedantam; whereas, the Sishya Jaimini, has written the Sutras for the earlier portion of the Vedas, namely for the Poorva Meemamsai / Karma Kaandam! Another twist to the story is that, the person who has written the Vaartikam (to Adi Sankara's Bhashyam to the Brhma Sutram,) is Sureshwara Achariyal who was a very ardent follower of Kumarila Bhatta. But once, he was won over by Adi Sankara in a debate, he accepted Adi Sankara as his Guru and wrote Vartikam for Acharyal's Bhashyam, on Brhma Sutra.

9. Sureshwara was known as Mandana Mishra, before he became Adi Sankara's Sishya. As the story goes, the debate between him and Adi Sankara took place in the presence of both Veda Vyasa and Jaimini. Why should Acharyal Adi Sankara go for a debate with Mandana Mishra, who was a Meemamasaka? The point to understand here is that, though Meemamsai is in two divergent parts of Poorva (Karma Vadins) and Uttara (Gnana predomonant Vedantis), both are commonly known as Meemamsakas. As I said earlier, both are ardent followers of Veda only. So what was the occassion for Sankaracharyal, whose sole purpose was to re-establish the Vaidik way of life, to go and argue with a Meemamsakar in a debate. (KTSV adds:- This episode may be related to, how Kumarila Bhatta was an Avatara of Lord Subrahmanya, and had, to a large extent, countered Non-Vaidik Religions such as Jainism and Buddhism; before the arrival of Sankara in North India. Please refer to Deivathin Kural # 137 of 15 Jan 2007.) After all, Meemamsakars were very much strict adherents of Vaidik way of life! So the question remains, as to why was this debate necessitated? Before we answer this Question, let us see as to what is the purpose and Aim of the Vaidik way of life, is all about!

10. If there is a Saastram, it should take us to Easwara. All our Saastras are meant to do so, as I said earlier. Even Grammer, Dictionary and Philology should do that; as do, Vyakaranam, Chandas, Niruktam and so on. That is why they are considered as part of the 14 Vidya Sthanas. Now, what is the concept about God in Poorva Meemamsai? Before this, let us see as to what is the concept about God, in the Uttara Meemamsai / Vedaantam, that our Acharyal, agreed, approved and propogated. Acharyal is important for us. His views are important. For Him, Vyasacharyal's Brhma Sutram was important! What does Brhma Sutram say about this very important subject? Who is Easwara? What are his characteristics?

11. While talking about Jeevatma, Brhma Sutram says, "...karta saastraarthavatvaat...". As the Saastras, have layed many duties for him to do, he is the empowered 'Karta'. Though he is the empowered 'Karta', he is not empowered to the fruits of his actions! The 'Phal' or the fruit of the actions is completely left to the discretion of the Easwara. To distribute the fruits of your actions is the job of Easwara, who is also the 'Jagat Karta' or Creator of the world. (This word 'Karta' has also been borrowed by other Religionists too, to indicate the Creator.) Though the Jeevatma is the 'Karta' in a limited way, the 'Phala Dhata' job is not in the Jeevatma's hands. Brhma Sutram says, "...palamata upapatte:...".

12. Easwara is the one who apportions all effects of our good and bad 'Karma'. We do many things by mind, speech and action. Some of them good and some of them bad. There has to be a central authority, which remains detatched, uninvolved, totally cognizant, impartial, omniscient, omnipotent and the 'Phala Dhata'. That is to say, He has two main Jobs, namely, 'Jagat Karta and Phala Dhata'. This is as per the Uttara Meemamsai / Vedaantam. Now what does Poorva Meemamsai, that used to be known simply as Meemamsai, as part of the Veda Upaangam say about Easwara? At the time AdiSankara came on the scene, there were, Sankhya Madam and Meemamsa Madam and Jainism and Buddhism. We will talk about all of them, in the ensuing e-mails. (KTSV adds:-Please have patience. We have a long way to go. This Meemamsai: Karma Margam, goes on for another 40 pages, may be 5 or 6 e-mails. Then Deivathin Kural goes on for another Five and a half volumes of a thousand pages each. I may take four more years. But I can assure you that at the end of it, You will not have any doubts left. You will accept and accommodate any number of opposing view points and still have absolute clarity!)

(To be continued.)




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